The Kingdom of Kush

The Kingdom of Kush or Kush (/kʊʃ, kʌʃ/) was an ancient African kingdom situated on the confluences of the Blue Nile, White Nile and River Atbara in what is now the Republic of Sudan.

Established after the Bronze Age collapse and the disintegration of the New Kingdom of Egypt, it was centered at Napata in its early phase. After King Kashta (“the Kushite”) invaded Egypt in the 8th century BC, the Kushite kings ruled as pharaohs of the Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt for a century, until they were expelled by Psamtik I in 656 BC.

During Classical antiquity, the Kushite imperial capital was at Meroe. In early Greek geography, the Meroitic kingdom was known as Ethiopia. The Kushite kingdom with its capital at Meroe persisted until the 4th century AD, when it weakened and disintegrated due to internal rebellion.

By the 1st century AD, the Kushite capital had been captured by the Beja Dynasty, who tried to revive the empire. The Kushite capital was eventually captured and burnt to the ground by the Kingdom of Axum.

The native name of the Kingdom was recorded in Egyptian as k3š, likely pronounced /kuɫuʃ/ or /kuʔuʃ/ in Middle Egyptian when the term is first used for Nubia, based on the New Kingdom-era Akkadian transliteration as the genitive kūsi. . It is also an ethnic term for the native population who initiated the kingdom of Kush. The term is also displayed in the names of Kushite persons, such as King Kashta (a transcription of k3š-t3 “(one from) the land of Kush”). Geographically, Kush referred to the region south of the first cataract in general. Kush also was the home of the rulers of the 25th dynasty.

The name Kush since at least the time of Josephus has been connected with the biblical character Cush, in the Hebrew Bible (Hebrew: כוש), son of Ham (Genesis 10:6). Ham had four sons named: Cush, Put, Canaan and Mizraim (Hebrew name for Egypt). However, following Friedrich Delitzsch (Wo lag das Paradies? 1881), modern scholars have often suggested that certain uses of the name Cush in the Bible might refer instead to the Kassites of the Zagros Mountains region (within modern Iran).

Mentuhotep II (21st century BC founder of the Middle Kingdom) is recorded to have undertaken campaigns against Kush in the 29th and 31st years of his reign. This is the earliest Egyptian reference to Kush; the Nubian region had gone by other names in the Old Kingdom.

During the New Kingdom of Egypt, Nubia (Kush) was an Egyptian colony, from the 16th century BC governed by an Egyptian Viceroy of Kush. With the disintegration of the New Kingdom around 1070 BC, Kush became an independent kingdom centered at Napata in modern central Sudan.

The Kushites buried their monarchs along with all their courtiers in mass graves. Archaeologists refer to these practices as the “Pan-grave culture”This was given its name due to the way in which the remains are buried. They would dig a pit and put stones around them in a circle. Kushites also built burial mounds and pyramids, and shared some of the same gods worshiped in Egypt, especially Ammon and Isis. With the worshiping of these gods the Kushites began to take some of the names of the gods as their throne names.

The Kush rulers were regarded as guardians of the state religion and were responsible for maintaining the houses of the gods. Some scholars believe the economy in the Kingdom of Kush was a redistributive system. The state would collect taxes in the form of surplus produce and would redistribute to the people. Others believe that most of the society worked on the land and required nothing from the state and did not contribute to the state. Northern Kush seemed to be more productive and wealthier than the Southern area.

Africa_in_400_BCConquest of Egypt (25th Dynasty)

In 945 BC, Sheshonq I and Libyan princes took control of the Ancient Egyptian delta and founded the so-called Libyan or Bubastite dynasty, which would rule for some 200 years. Sheshonq also gained control of southern Egypt by placing his family members in important priestly positions. In 711, King Sheshonq made Memphis his northern capital.However, Libyan control began to erode as a rival dynasty in the delta arose in Leontopolis and Kushites threatened from the south.

Around 727 BC, the Kushite king Piye invaded Egypt, seized control of Thebes and eventually the Delta. His dynasty, the Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt, continued until about 671 BC when they were deposed by the Neo Assyrian Empire.

Piye attempted to regain a foothold for Egypt in the Near East that had been lost five centuries before during the period of the Middle Assyrian Empire and Hittite Empire. However he was defeated by the Assyrian king Shalmaneser V and then his successor Sargon II in the 720’s BC. The 25th dynasty was based at Napata, in Nubia, which is now The Sudan. Alara is universally regarded as the founder of the 25th Kushite dynasty by his successors.

The power of the 25th Dynasty reached a climax under the pharaohs Piye and Taharqa. The Nile valley empire was as large as it had been since the New Kingdom. The 25th dynasty ushered in a renaissance period for Ancient Egypt.Religion, the arts, and architecture were restored to their glorious Old, Middle, and New Kingdom forms. Pharaohs, such as Taharqa, built or restored temples and monuments throughout the Nile valley, including at Memphis, Karnak, Kawa, Jebel Barkal, etc. It was during the 25th dynasty that the Nile valley saw the first widespread construction of pyramids (many in modern Sudan) since the Middle Kingdom.
Taharqa was the son of Piye and the first seventeen years of his reign were very prosperous for Kush. During this period Writing was introduced to Kush (Nubia), in the form of the Egyptian influenced Meroitic script circa 700–600 BC, although it appears to have been wholly confined to the Royal Court and Major Temples.

Egypt’s international prestige had declined considerably towards the end of the Third Intermediate Period. Its historical Semitic Canaanite allies in the Southern Levant had fallen to the Middle Assyrian Empire (1365-1020 BC), and then the resurgent Neo Assyrian Empire (935-605 BC). The Semitic Assyrians, from the 10th century BC onwards, had once more expanded from their northern Mesopotamian homeland, and conquered a vast empire, including the whole of the Near East, and much of Asia Minor, the eastern Mediterranean, the Caucasus and ancient Iran/Persia.

By 700 BC war between the two Empires became inevitable. Taharqa enjoyed some minor initial success in his attempts to regain influence in the Near East. He aided King Hezekiah from attack by Sennacherib and the Assyrians (2 Kings 19:9;Isaiah 37:9), however disease among the besieging Assyrian army appears to have been the main cause of failure to take Jerusalem rather than any military setback, and Assyrian records indicate Hezekiah was forced to pay tribute regardless. The Assyrian King Sennacherib then defeated Taharqa and drove the Nubians and Egyptians from the region and back over the Sinai into Egypt.

Between 674 and 671 BC the Assyrians, tiring of Egyptian meddling in their empire, began their invasion of Egypt under King Esarhaddon, the successor of Sennacherib. The Assyrians, whose armies had been the best in the world since the 14th century BC, conquered this vast territory with surprising speed. Taharqa was driven from power by Esarhaddon, and fled to his Nubian homeland. Esarhaddon describes “installing local kings and governors” and “All Ethiopians I deported from Egypt, leaving not one to do homage to me”.

However, the native Egyptian vassal rulers installed by Esarhaddon as puppets were unable to effectively retain full control for long without Assyrian aid. Two years later, Taharqa returned from Nubia and seized control of a section of southern Egypt as far north as Memphis from Esarhaddon’s local vassals. Esarhaddon prepared to return to Egypt and once more eject Taharqa, however he fell ill and died in his capital Nineveh, before he left Assyria. His successor, Ashurbanipal, sent a Turtanu (general) with a small but well trained army which once more defeated Taharqa and ejected him from Egypt, and he was forced to flee back to his homeland in Nubia, where he died two years later.

His successor, Tanutamun, attempted to regain Egypt. He successfully defeated Necho, the subject ruler installed by Ashurbanipal, taking Thebes in the process. The Assyrians, who had a military presence in the north, then sent a large army southwards. Tantamani was heavily routed and the Assyrian army sacked Thebes to such an extent it never truly recovered. Tantamani was chased back to Nubia, and never threatened the Assyrian Empire again. A native Egyptian ruler, Psammetichus I, was placed on the throne, as a vassal of Ashurbanipal.

Why the Kushites chose to enter Egypt at this crucial point of foreign domination is subject to debate. Archaeologist Timothy Kendall offers his own hypotheses, connecting it to a claim of legitimacy associated with Gebel Barkal. Kendall cites the stele of Pharaoh Piye, which states that “Amun of Napata granted me to be ruler of every foreign country,” and “Amun in Thebes granted me to be ruler of the Black Land (Kmt)”. Noteworthy is that according to Kendall, “foreign lands” in this regard seems to include Lower Egypt (the north) while Kmt seems to refer to a united Upper Egypt and Nubia.

Move to Meroë
Aspelta moved the capital to Meroë, considerably farther south than Napata, possibly in 591 BC. It is also possible that Meroë had always been the Kushite capital.

Historians believe that the Kushite rulers may have chosen Meroë as their home because, unlike Napata, the region around Meroë had enough woodlands to provide fuel for iron working. In addition, Kush was no longer dependent on the Nile to trade with the outside world; they could instead transport goods from Meroë to the Red Sea coast, where Greek merchants were now traveling extensively.

The Kushites used the animal-driven water wheel to increase productivity and create a surplus, particularly during the Napatan-Meroitic Kingdom.

In about 300 BC the move to Meroë was made more complete when the monarchs began to be buried there, instead of at Napata. One theory is that this represents the monarchs breaking away from the power of the priests at Napata. According to Diodorus Siculus, a Kushite king, “Ergamenes”, defied the priests and had them slaughtered. This story may refer to the first ruler to be buried at Meroë with a similar name such as Arqamani,who ruled many years after the royal cemetery was opened at Meroë. During this same period, Kushite authority may have extended some 1,500 km along the Nile River valley from the Egyptian frontier in the north to areas far south of modern Khartoum and probably also substantial territories to the east and west.
Kushite civilization continued for several centuries. In the Napatan Period Egyptian hieroglyphs were used: at this time writing seems to have been restricted to the court and temples. From the 2nd century BC there was a separate Meroitic writing system. This was an alphabetic script with 23 signs used in a hieroglyphic form (mainly on monumental art) and in a cursive form. The latter was widely used; so far some 1278 texts using this version are known (Leclant 2000). The script was deciphered by Griffith, but the language behind it is still a problem, with only a few words understood by modern scholars. It is not as yet possible to connect the Meroitic language with other known languages.

Strabo describes a war with the Romans in the 1st century BC. After the initial victories of Kandake (or “Candace”) Amanirenas against Roman Egypt, the Kushites were defeated and Napata sacked. Remarkably, the destruction of the capital of Napata was not a crippling blow to the Kushites and did not frighten Candace enough to prevent her from again engaging in combat with the Roman military. Indeed, it seems that Petronius’s attack might have had a revitalizing influence on the kingdom. Just three years later, in 22 BC, a large Kushite force moved northward with intention of attacking Qasr Ibrim. Alerted to the advance, Petronius again marched south and managed to reach Qasr Ibrim and bolster its defences before the invading Kushites arrived. Although the ancient sources give no description of the ensuing battle, we know that at some point the Kushites sent ambassadors to negotiate a peace settlement with Petronius. By the end of the second campaign, however, Petronius was in no mood to deal further with the Kushites :149 The Kushites succeeded in negotiating a peace treaty on favourable terms and trade between the two nations increased.:149 Some historians like Theodore Mommsen wrote that during Augustus times Nubia was a possible “client state” of the Roman Empire.

It is possible that the Roman emperor Nero planned another attempt to conquer Kush before his death in 68 AD.: 150–151 Kush began to fade as a power by the 1st or 2nd century AD, sapped by the war with the Roman province of Egypt and the decline of its traditional industries. Christianity began to gain over the old pharaonic religion and by the mid-sixth century AD the Kingdom of Kush was dissolved.

Kush and Egyptology
On account of the Kingdom of Kush’s proximity to Ancient Egypt — the first cataract at Elephantine usually being considered the traditional border between the two polities — and because the 25th dynasty ruled over both states in the 8th century BC, from the Rift Valley to the Taurus mountains, historians have closely associated the study of Kush with Egyptology, in keeping with the general assumption that the complex socio-political development of Egypt’s neighbours can be understood in terms of Egyptian models. As a result, the political structure and organization of Kush as an independent ancient state has not received as thorough attention from scholars, and there remains much ambiguity especially surrounding the earliest periods of the state. Edwards has suggested that study of the region could benefit from increased recognition of Kush as a state in its own right, with distinct cultural conditions, rather than merely as a secondary state on the periphery of Egypt.


I am learning about this stuff in class and it is really hard to understand some of the stuff it is about. I am finding my way through it and I need to study for the test I will be having on it.

yes, this is wonderful, my Name are Nnabugo Chibuzu Enyennaya Nwagwu from south East Nigeria i the son of Negroes , i am happy for the truth , because the whole world is selfish,i know my destiny, and for the pass 2000 yes ago we have been in dark we the Delta marshes bless all nation

My name Ijakpovi Ogheneovo Eyitene , a Nigerian living in London
The truth of about Black Civilization is gradually emerging and the Truth Black History should be taught in all African Schools.

As Sudanese I am not only proud of this history but I want whole the world to know the black people has a great deal of share in mankind’s history

I am so proud and honored to be able to learn about black faros Nubia Kush I always believe that we’ve had black royalty within us and the point that is coming out finally gives me a strong desire to share this information with all of mankind especially my people to let them know who we truly are

Am greatly happy for such a history and am motivated to love my identity as an Afrikan.blacks should workhard to restore black history and civilisation if they are to be respected

The craddle of civilization I can say no more a watched a documentation on the black pharoahs and I cant believed how special these leaders were in the history of the world. The world stole it tombs, its culture and it’s people mankind it’s so limited without their deeds I cant believe what man to to a man for just gold no wonder God sent Jesus and the rest of the peace makers to save man, we now have faith instead of gold but man has not grown I’m ashamed. Greed is man’s destiny

Way to long

Wonderful history. As a nilotic Luo from Kenya, I love reading the story of my ancestors. They faced great odds. My only regret is that nobody is trying to connect meroitic language with current nilotic languages like Shilluk, Anuak, Luo, Dinka and Nuer. This could speed up its deciphering

My name is bakubu ahaberuna ziwuuwa of sudan and i am very proud to see my ancestors talked about. wegue wagubub

i’m general kush. dad told part of the history wen i waz 9.
So am nw spiritually,physically and mentally connected wid my ancestorz. AM A PROUD YOUTH IN THE KINGDOM OF KUSH ARMY.

Our history is clear and more underground archeological evidences are still being discovered up to date. The history doesn’t only tells the extent of power Africans had before colonial invasion but also defines our exact religions apart from current ones. We should appreciate our history and restore our identities.
Meroitic language is connected with present day Nilotic languages in Sudan and South Sudan .

Black people ruled the world, and we will rule it again.

Am very proud of my historical background as a Sudanese from South Sudan , but this shouldn’t be enough to learn because some are not narrated here so it need afrincans to make alots of research and put it into a context that may last forever and keep remainding our next generation and restore back our original identities

Yes, once again African making others rich. BTW, I’m African American.
Here is the skinny… throughout history, the West had a lack of resources, so they went out and looked for other lands to conquer, steal, rape or trade.
‘Tomb Raiders’

And, that depends who the competitors were.

Throughout history, Egypt had many wars of people attacking them and they won a lot including ruling Kush for many years.

Then a switch happened… Egypt was consistent in getting attack and now having problems maintaining both kingdoms Egypt and Kush.
While Kush was starting to gain power and after another costly battle that has weakened Egypt.
The Kush came to the rescue and took over Egypt and Kush and ruled both for 100 years while winning all wars for almost 100 years.
Through the Kushite era, they build more pyramids than any other Pharaoh of his time. ( Taharqa the Pharaoh)
What causes Kushite and Egypt era to finally end as technology took over and the diseases from war.

Traveling and gaining new information. On how to beat your opponent a new way.

This is what’s happening now in Africa and why the era of the Egyptian pharaoh finally disappeared.
Africa has everything they need while other countries don’t and just like in the Egyptian era.

You have the West stealing all the gold, diamonds, minerals, and art statues.
And, Chinese using the soft power of money on all the different countries.

It real sad that people from other races want to kill destroy as well as do evil acts against they fellow man.

I’m a black. Modern maths came up in egypt.
It shows we’re the fathers of civilization.
Thou its stolen from us.

Ancient Egypt (Kemet or Mizraim), Kush, Canaan, ancient Israel, Cyrene (Libya), Carthage, Sidon, Jordan, the Kingdom of Judea, Syria, Himyar, Ethiopia, Mesopotamia, etc.—these were all lands inhabited and ruled by BLACK PEOPLE during the Biblical period. Today, Circassians, modern Greeks, Albanians, Ottoman and Khazar Turks predominate.

Great United States of Africa. Together we can make Africa great again. Thank you all for your contribution

I read this post fully about the difference of hottest and earlier
technologies, it’s amazing article.

It’s so important for ones identity we are the black supremacy of this world from pottery to writing building maths crafts it makes me cry to know what the white nation has done to us and even now all will be gathered up and returned back to its rightful place

I am so glad that this has emerged more and more. Knowing our history is very important to us thriving and prospering in today’s world. The pictures that are and were painted about we as black people are beginning to transform young people’s thinking about who they are and how God created us in his plans of populating this earth.

Great to learn about ancient civilizations! But sorry to see the rich civilizations have become victims of invaders, got converted and people have forgotten their own glorious past.

Hamid Habib.
That’s my name and I am from Nuba mountains and as (AMMA) language speaker I think that my language have got something that may help in translation of the language of kush

Great information for us the black race.

Stand true in your quest for enlightenment because learning
about where us as a people really came from and the spirit that flows in us all can be rekindle and we can become great once more.

Black (KUSH-the son of Kam/Ham) was so great according to Historical evidences that found in different parts of the world and biblical evidence that found in several parts of the scriptures.
The first and strongest king of ancient World was Nimrod-the son of Kush who established strong kingdom was our father.
I am from the modern Ethiopia.I know 300% we black people are the true source of the whole world’s civilizations:such as mathematics, medicine,political ruling system-Democracy by itself (Geda system) emerged in the kingdom of Kush by our ancestors however the westerns stole our HISTORY and our land.
Truth is always truth no one remove it.
I hope we will things as it is without stealing others history and treasury.Let us find the truth properly and then things will be revealed for us.
Don’t afraid to reveal truth which is hidden and stolen by others.
I am searching for different scholars ideas that they wrote regarding ancient civilizations and the true source of modern things.We all the people of the entire world is one weather it is believed or not.

I would urge all here to read these books for more information.
(1) “African Time: Universe to 1896 A.D., Expanded Edition”, by Tdka Maat Kilimanjaro, Ph.D., Ife Kilimanjaro Ph.D. , and Aaneb Yahra, Sba
(2) “SEPDT: African Kmt’s Calendar Modernized “, by Tdka Maat Kilimanjaro, Ph.D.
(3) “When We Ruled”, by Robin Walker
(4) “The Destruction of Black Civilization: Great Issues Of A Race From 4500 B.C-2000 A.D.”, by Dr. Chancellor Williams
(5) “Nile Valley Civilizations”, Edited by Dr. Ivan Van Sertima
(6) “Civilization or Barbarism: An Authentic Anthropology”, by Dr. Cheikh Anta Diop
(7) “The Peopling of Ancient Egypt And The Deciphering Of The Meoroitic Script”, by Cheikh Anta Diop, Jean Leclant, Theophile Obenga, and Jean Vercoutter
(8) “UNESCO’S General History of Africa”, volume#2, Edited by G. Mokhtar

I am so happy to learn about the history of kush for black history month I will continue to recherche more black history like the Moor’s and the Ottoman and the slave trade I am a caribbean man from the so call french colon y of st martin the Caribbean history Is full of lying parts we is doctrinatted by lies

One sided article. Nice to see the positives presented but what about the conquest, slavery theft that came with this history. There are virtually not clean hands in this world when you look at the full history. All you what to see is the last 500 years and what the “west” had done. If you look at the full history you will see dozens on non-white rulers who conquered, killed and enslaved thousands. Read the history of Timur and the 17 million people he killed throughout Asia, Africa and the middle east as one example.

Thanks for the Info, Thr REAL INFO!☺☺☺☺☺

They recently found remains in Egypt fossilized and had BRAIDS… No white gened individual can cultivate that naturally… whites will never exist in history has proud strong people, they are weak and will always be known as war Mungerring savages. Dig your souls to the core of the earth you will not find any white dust in the earth… the earth belongs to black people not white ✊

It is very interesting for me to have knowledge about my background history as Black from south sudan but it is better teach this history in African schools rather than European History
As per now the African history they teachs is just recent events like National African history, African history of 1850s
And they explorers need to do a lot of research to come with full details like European history and thanks

My name is shalom I was born in the United States but my nationality is nubian. Anyone have any ideas so I can get my nationality status from north Sudan?

Since retiring, and now able to really get caught up on lot of my reading, I happen to be watching the History channel, which brought this eye opening information about the Black Pharaoh’s to my attention, and having assisted Enoch, I do not remember seeing or reading about any of this in any of my history books. There are a lot of black images in Egyptian history, on walls, and in tombs, that’s telling the story of Egyptian royalty, and not all images are being brought to the surface, it was left up to the average individual looking at the picture to assume the black images as a servant or lower grade of assistance. I can’t turn back the hands of time, but I can read on.

Africa is is Unique, and has everything on the ground, let us unite, as the Kushite were .

Just like the ancient Egyptians, Canaanites, Phoenicians, Mesopotamians, Babylonians, Libyans, Anatolians, Judeans (Kingdom of Judah a.k.a. the Southern Kingdom of Israel) and other Biblical Hebrews (Northern Kingdom of Israel), were all black people.

“By 700 BC war between the two Empires became inevitable. Taharqa enjoyed some minor initial success in his attempts to regain influence in the Near East. He aided King Hezekiah from attack by Sennacherib and the Assyrians (2 Kings 19:9;Isaiah 37:9). However, disease among the besieging Assyrian army appears to have been the main cause of failure to take Jerusalem rather than any military setback, and Assyrian records indicate Hezekiah was forced to pay tribute regardless. The Assyrian King Sennacherib then defeated Taharqa and drove the Nubians and Egyptians from the region, and back over the Sinai into Egypt.”

Assyrian King Sennacherib’s army invaded the Judean City of Lachish (a.k.a. LaKush, LaKish or LaKisha), where thousands of Hebrews were brutally murdered. Those who survived the Assyrian onslaught were rounded up and deported to foreign lands under Assyrian control. At his capital, Nineveh (now called Mosul in modern day Iraq), the boastful King Sennacherib commissioned the construction of a large wall around his so-called Palace Without A Rival. On that wall, he ordered that pictorial depictions (reliefs) showing his victorious military campaigns abroad be displayed. Images showing the Assyrian destruction of Judea and its people were prominently shown, too.
The Judeans were clearly shown to be black people.

In our time, Khazar Jews rule modern Israel, and their first-cousins, the Ottoman and Albanian Turks—along with the Mullatoes of both groups, rule modern Egypt, where Sunni Islam is the state religion.

Modern Israel is mostly dominated by European Jews of Khazar Turkish and Turko-Finn origins. The Khazar King Bulan, converted from his native Khazar religion to the Hebrew faith in the 8th or 9th century CE. He was converted by Babylonian (black or Ethiopic) rabbis, who introduced him to the Babylonian Talmud. Therefore, modern European Jews, according to the late Dr. Benjamin H. Freedman’s 1954 treatise, ‘Highlander: The Truth About Khazars’, are a product of the Talmud.

Modern Egypt is currently dominated and ruled by their first-cousins, the Oghuz Turks, Ottoman Turks, Albanian Turks, Mameluk Turks, Seljuk Turks, Armenian Turks, Macedonian Turks, Anatolian Turks, Greek Turks, Persian Turks, Cretan Turks, Turkmenistan Turks as well as Circassians, French, English and other white settlers

“The name Kush since at least the time of Josephus, has been connected with the biblical character Cush, in the Hebrew Bible (Hebrew: כוש), son of Ham (Genesis 10:6). Ham had four sons named: Cush, Put, Canaan and Mizraim (Hebrew name for Egypt).”

Ham means black or burnt (as in something blackened through burning)
Avraham (Abraham) means Burnt or Black Father. Avra (Abra) means father.

My name is Xolani Ngcongo fro South Africa, Johannesburg, I am very happy to lean about this tribe, Why i can e across this, I am a Zulu and I am searching where is my tribe originated, My Research took me to 12 Tribes of Israel Zebulun and linking a DNA with Khush. What comes out when connecting the Dots is a 10 tribes fled from Israel during the Roman invasion. I found that all those tribes are in Africa and Zulu tribe is one of those tribes.

Help me to know the origin of the mighty Zulu Nation

As an American black, I am so proud to have read of the black civilizations that were demonstrating humanities greatness a long time ago! In America blacks are considered inferior people but now I KNOW that BLACK PEOPLE REALLY ARE SUPERIOR TO WHITES. And we never EVER used our color to put down another like the Caucasians did and are still (trying) to do. All people are equal yet the whites can’t seem to grasp that

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