Rastafari Culture

Many people throughout the world have a hard time understanding what it means to be a Rasta. For some their troubles in understanding Rasta’s come because they look as Rastafari as only a religion.

When one does this they run into many problems. This is because Rastafari is much more than a religion. It is a way of life, a social movement, as well as a mind set. Another reason why western people have a hard time understanding Rastafari is because the movement lacks the structure that the western world is use to.


A lot of people’s understanding of Rasta’s only goes as far as to think that Rasta’s are people that live in Jamaica, smoke weed, and have Dreadlocks. These people do not begin to think what is behind the movement. The idea that Rastafari is strictly Jamaican is also very wrong. Since the origination of Rastafari, the Rasta movement has expanded far beyond the island of Jamaica. Rasta’s now live all over the world. There are Rasta cultures in all parts of Europe, Asia, New Zealand, United States, and especially Africa.

The Development of Rastafari

Marcus Garvey, Jamaican Black Nationalist and Separatist, ca. 1920. In August 1920, his ‘Universal Negro Improvement Association,’ , claimed 4 million members and 25,000 attended its Madison Square Gardens

The Rastafari movement stems from the teachings of the great Jamaican leader and motivator of masses, Marcus Garvey told the African people of the world to unite and to return to African, the homeland. Garvey’s vision was for the

“Blacks to overcome their feelings of inferiority and build upon their own unique and evolving culture, and ultimately return to Africa to redeem their homeland and to build a future”(Dubb. Pg2)

Garvey’s vision and ability to unite people made the Jamaican people enlightened to what was going on in the world. Garvey created the U.N.I.A. and the Negro World newspaper, which helped to inform the Jamaicans of what was going on in the African world. Garvey told his followers, “Look towards Africa for the crowning of a black king – he shall be the redeemer”. Garvey often used many biblical terms in his teaching to free his movement from the oppression of the “White Man”, whether he meant them to be taken literally is unclear, but what is clear is that many Jamaicans took them literally. An event that would happen in 1930 would be as important to a Rasta’s as the birth of Christ is to a Christian.

In 1930 a man named Tafari Makonne or Ras Tafari (Ras meaning king) claimed himself Emperor of Ethiopia Haile Selassie I as well as the traditional titles “King of Kings, Lord of Lords, and Conquering Lion of the Tribe Judah. To some Jamaican people this meant that Garvey’s prophecy had been fulfilled. These people tuned to the Bible and through literal translation of the documents found much correlation into what had taken place. An important correlation to the Bible is the fact that Selassie claimed to be a direct descendent of King David. By Selassie claming his relation to David, he had made a coalition to Revelation 5:2-5. To some Jamaicans this meant their Messiah had arrived.

ETHIOPIA – CIRCA 1958 : A stamp printed in Ethiopia shows image of emperor Haile Selassie with the inscription in Amharic, series, circa 1958

In Jamaica some people such as Leonard P. Howell, J.N. Hibert, and Archibald Dunkle, began to spread the word of the Messiah coming to save the African people. To Dunkle Howell, and Hibert Haile, Selassie became their living god. The people who listened to this soon began to call themselves Rastafarians. To these new Rasta’s, Ethiopia became their Zion, and Haile Selassie their Messiah. The Rastafari religion would continue to follow this trend of interpreting the Bible literally which lead to practices that make the Rastafari religion unique from any other.

What It Means to be Rasta

The beliefs of the Rastafarian are often misunderstood. To many, any one who has dreads, smokes ganja, and plays Reggae music is a Rasta. There is much more than those three elements to being a Rasta.  Rastafari is more than just a religion. It is a movement and a way of life. The Rasta life style is one of peace, or at least it seeks to be one of peace. I say this because throughout the world the Rasta are oppressed and harassed and Rasta’s sometimes are forced to turn to violence for survival. It is important when reading this section of the paper that one understands that the Rastafari has no set book of rules. The Rasta way of life that is laid out here is not true for all Rasta’s. What is said in this section is the basic beliefs of Rasta and not all Rasta’s follow these customs exactly.

Ganja Smoking

One of the first aspects of Rastafari that come to mind when people hear of Rastafari is their use of marijuana. The smoking Ganja for a Rasta is a special experience. They use the Ganja to help enlighten their mind so they can correctly reason the ways of the world. The Ganja is always smoked in a ritual way. Before smoking the plant the Rasta will say a prayer to Jah (God) or to Haile Selassie I. The Rasta call them reasoning sessions when they use Ganja for Nyabinghi. A Nyabinghi session is much different from a casual marijuana smoking session that western people take part in. People in the west smoke marijuana for social and entertainment reasons. In the west smoking the weed may lead to a silly time of laughing and horse play. This differs greatly from what takes place during a Nyabinghi. A Nyabinghi is a taken very seriously. Acting silly would be considered disrespectful to a Rasta. Before Rasta smoke the ritual plant, they say a prayer to their god Haile Selassie.

Unfortunately for the Rasta, the smoking of Ganja has become one of the Rasta biggest struggles. This is due to the fact that Ganja smoking is illegal in almost every country in the world with the exception of two. Throughout the world, from South Africa to Jamaica the Rasta are constantly at court with the government trying to fight for the legalization of Ganja for religious purposes. In every country that Rasta’s have gone to court to fight for this religious right they have lost. The countries that they have tried to fight for the right to smoke Ganja in include: Great Britain, United States, South African, Jamaica, and more. Many Rasta’s throughout the world have ended up in jail because of the smoking of their religious plant.

The Rasta’s use of Ganja stems back to the beginning of Rastarafi in Jamaica. In 1941 one of the early teachers of Rastafari, Leonard P. Howell, set up a Rasta community of sixteen hundred Rasta’s. This community was named Pinnacle. At Pinnacle, Howell grew Ganja as a cash crop. It was during this time that Rasta discovered the properties of Ganja that helped their reasoning process. The Rasta soon turned to the Bible and found reverence to the use of this holy plant. From this Ganja was born into the Rastafari culture.


Dreadlocks are another well-known part of Rastafari. The origin of the dreadlock traces back to ancient Africa, originating in eastern Africa,

“The hairstyle was worn by warriors in Kenya, and a Hairstyle of ancient Kemet and Nubia. However in Jamaica, in post slavery and Eurocentric culture, the Hairstyle was deemed in the early years as “Dreadful”(Dubb pg.3).

The name dreadlock comes from the locks of hair deemed dreadful as Dubb explained.  The Rasta’s also believe that they should not put sharp metal objects to their head. This comes again from interpreting the Bible literally.  Due to this belief they do not believe it is right to shave or comb their hair. Another belief that led to the dreadlocks among Rasta’s is that the wearing of the Dread resembles the main of  a lion. The lion is significant because the lion is the respected king of the animal kingdom, as well as humble animal. Both of these traits the Rasta believes are divine and important to the “Black Man”. Haile Selassie I also was called “the conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah”, this makes the wearing of the dread connected to the Rasta god. The dreadlock is also a natural state of the African person hair, and by being natural the Rasta feels they are more connected to Jah.

The wearing of the dread first appeared in the Rasta Community at the original Rasta community of Pinnacle. At Pinnacle Howell was growing Ganja as a cash crop and the police where constantly raiding the farms. Because of this and other border problems at the Rasta community, Howell was forced to create a group of guards to protect the area. These guards grew their hair long in the form of ancient African warriors and became known as “locksmen”. With this and the reasons given in the previous paragraph, the Dreadlock became the hairstyle of the Rasta.

Just like the smoking of Ganja, the dreadlock hairstyle has lead many problems for the Rasta. In the early days of Rastafari, Rasta who wore their hair in dread form where brutalized by the police for no reason. This pushed many Rasta into the bush of Jamaica so that they could live in peace. Things have not gotten a whole lot better for dreadlocked people. In Jamaica and other parts of the world children who have dreads are not allowed to attend some schools. Just like the Ganja issue the, the dreadlock school issue is constantly being fought in courts throughout the Rasta world. It came up lately in a South African school where a young child was not given the right to go to school because of her dreads and the issue had to be fought in court.

The Rasta Diet.

The Rastafari diet is something that is often overlooked by many people who do not know a great deal about Rastafari. The Rasta has a very interesting belief in their thoughts about dead beings. The Rasta’s do not like being around any animal that is dead. This idea stems into their diet. The Rasta believes that it is wrong to eat animals that have died because then you are turning your body into a cemetery. This does not mean that a Rasta will not eat dairy products. Most Rasta’s have no problem with the consumption of milk because it does not come from a dead animal. Although most Rasta’s will not eat animal meat, many Rasta’s will eat fish. However the Rasta will not eat shellfish. This stems from more readings in the Bible. Some but not all Rasta will go as far as to not t eat fruit that has been altered from its original form. This means they would not eat fruit that has been pealed, cut, or smashed. There is also a large number of Rasta that will not eat any processed food.

Rasta Dialect

The dialect of the Rasta reflects their beliefs in many ways. “If you Really want to know how Rasta’s think, listen to them Talk”(Hicholas pg.37).  Rasta’s take their speech very seriously. Rasta’s are often trying to make their speech sound very powerful and grateful. The Rasta’s speech reflects how they often think literally. Their speech uses a literal translation of words, just like their beliefs use a literal translation of biblical readings. Their speech reflects their protest against oppression, as well as their protest against authority. When the Rasta’s speech is analyzed, it shows how the Rasta’s are always trying to think positively.

The Rastafarian rhetoric changes the English language in a way that helps them make more sense of the world, as well as to protest against what the Rasta believe to be unjust. Rasta will often change word from a negative meaning to a positive meaning. The changing of the word understand to “overstand” is an example of this.  To “overstand” means to fully and entirely have a grasp of a concept. This Rasta reasoning for this is that something that is under is worse than something that is over it, so they change “under” to “over”. A Rasta might say “I and I, must not just understand but overstand, seen”.  A Rasta will almost never use a negative term. They will always replace it with something positive. This is a great reflection on how the Rasta always sees things positively.

Another interesting concept of the Rasta’s language is their concept of I and I. The letter “I” is in almost every part of their language. It is in the name of their Religion “Rastafari”, and it is part of their gods title Selassie I. The Rasta use the word to connect themselves to god, to show that that god is always part of them. A Rasta will never “I am going there” instead it would be “I and I am going there”. The Rasta does this to show that god is part of him, and that he is not separate from any other person. “I” is also used to replace letters of powerful words.  This too is reflected in the word “you” not being part of the Rasta language. The Rasta believes that first there was just “I” and then the devil came and created “you”.

The Rasta’s Social Thought.

The Rasta believes in peace and they are constantly trying to preach down violence. This preaching down of violence is often hard for Rasta’s to do because most Rasta live in poor areas where peace is often unattainable. The Rasta fear world wars, and especially Nuclear war. This want for world peace is heard often in the Rasta’s Reggae music.

One of the most important parts of Rasta thought is the protest against authority and structure. The Rasta’s refer to the authorities that rule the world as Babylon.  Babylon is connected to the devil and is ruled by the oppressive “white man”. This rejection of authority can be seen in how Rastafari has no rules like many other religions do. There is not one thing that Rasta has to do to be a Rasta because that would defeat the whole purpose of being a Rasta. The Rasta’s reject the Pope very much. “Burn the Pope. Burn the Pope man….The Pope is a vampire, wants our blood. Selassie I is the head. The Pope is the devil”(Lewis pg 45). This quote of a Jamaican Rasta is an example of how the Rasta’s feel about organized religion and the Pope.

Rasta’s economic beliefs are anti-capitalism. The Rasta’s believe that Capitalism is part of Babylon. Rasta’s believe what is yours is also your neighbors. This does not mean that Rasta’s would approve of Communism. To a Rasta Communism would be too structured. They would also reject the idea of a leader telling them what to do. Most Rasta’s also do not believe in paying taxes. Because of this most Rasta’s do not take part in the formal economy. Instead they either live in a place where they can survive on what they can grow or they take part in the informal economy and survive through street vending. Some Rasta’s survive by selling Ganja, or other illegal substances.

One unfortunate part of Rastafari is their negative attitude toward females. Most Rasta’s believe that females are not equal to men. They believe that a good woman must always respect men and do what they ask. This is very contrary to much of their other beliefs about people being equal. Rasta men often beat their wives for being lazy. Rasta men believe that being naked is good because you are closer to god in your natural state. However Rasta’s believe that women should not show off their bodies. Rasta’s belief of sexual contact also differs from men to women. Rasta men often have many different partners, while it is wrong for Rasta women to give more than a hand shake to more than one man.

Rastafari in Ethiopia.

For many Rasta’s moving back to Ethiopia is their dream.  Fortunately for some this dream has come true. In 1963 Emperor Haile Selassie I gave 500 hectares of land to any African that wished to return to Ethiopia. The land that was given is located in the small southern Ethiopian town of Shasemene. The small town of Shasemene has a population of 13,000. The people living in this town are 90% Christian and 10% Muslim. The town has many visitors because it is a cross roads of the three largest Ethiopian cities. Prostitution is very common in this town and many women make good money through this business. Other than prostitution there is little contact between the sexes. The town’s economic base is in   trade and farming. The staple crops are maize, beans, potatoes, wheat, barley and injera (a local grain used in traditional Ethiopian breads).

Separate from this economy the Rasta’s have set up a commune that lies three miles outside of the main market of Shashemene. The town has grown from the original 12 Rasta’s to two hundred families. Almost all of the Rasta’s living in the town have come from Jamaica. For the most part the only ones who have not are Ethiopian woman who have intermarried with the Rasta’s. The Rasta’s who live here are members of the Twelve Tribes of Israel. The Twelve Tribes is the most organized form of Rastafari that there is. The origin of the group is in Jamaica and has branches in Brooklyn, NY. The Twelve Tribes tend to be more radical in their beliefs than other Rasta’s. They believe strongly in the return of all Rasta’s to Africa.

The Rasta’s compound is made up of houses that are made out of mud, straw, clay and loose concrete mix. The structure of these houses is very strong, but none of the houses are more than one story. This is because the Rasta’s of this area believe that building their houses over one story would be invading Gods area. The walls of these houses are also very porous because the Rasta’s say that is so they can breath while inside.

The Rasta’s that live in the compound at Shashemene are able to live without being controlled by any kind of state. Their economy is completely informal. This is able to work because the land is very fertile and they can grow almost all they need to survive. What they can’t grow they get from the trading at the market and other funding that comes from Jamaica and other organizations. Because of this the people of the compound are completely free and truly live with no other person governing their actions. There is no class order in the compound. Work projects are done by the most skilled person in that field, being in charge of the project.

Life for women in the Rasta compound at Shashemene is not great. In fact it is more oppressive than in other areas of Rastafari culture. Women are often severely beaten for taking too long to go to the market. The men often time how long it takes to go to the market and come back with out wasting time to talk or any other pleasure. If the woman does not return in this pre planed time they are often beaten.

“She showed me scars she bore from such a beating when she was punished for lingering too long in the daily market. Her husband had carefully timed her trips to the market and lateness aroused suspicions of infidelity”(Lewis pg 112)

This is grossly unfair for when men go to the market they spend much time lingering around, smoking Ganja, listening to the BBC to see what is happening in the world as well as discussing their view of world politics of other Rasta’s.

The daily life for a man living in the Twelve Tribe compound is much different than that of the women. The men spend most of their time involved in activities that are not related to work. They will spend much of their time smoking and discussing Rasta world views, as well painting pictures of Haile Selasie I.   Most Rasta’s living on the compound do not do much work in the fields. Newcomers to the compound do most of the work that is done in the field.  Most of these new comers do not stay long in the community because they are worked too hard by the older members. A Ethiopian women who lived in the compound for a while claims:

The newcomers, she claimed, are exploited and overworked through a process which the brethren call education. If they do remain it is because the brethren put fear in their hearts that the Twelve Tribes in Jamaica will shoot them should they leave. To return to Babylon is forbidden and sacrilegious (Lewis 112).

Most of the money that the members of the compound receive comes from the money that has been donated by people who live in Jamaica.

Different people that live in Shashemene perceive the Rasta’s differently. Some people reject the Rasta’s because their way of life is in conflict with the rest of the community, while others find the Rasta’s to be a harmless group that does nothing to hurt the community. However, there are very few among the villagers that feel that the Rasta’s do anything positive for the struggling town.

There are a few reasons that some people in the town do not like the Rasta’s. One of these is that even though the Rasta’s preach anti-violence, people in the village claim that they are very quick to pull out a knife when they disagree with each other. A second complaint about the Rasta’s is that they are lazy and sell cloth at the market that was given to them as charity. A third complaint about the Rasta’s is one that is universal throughout every place that Rasta live. This is the complaint about their use of Ganja.

“All they do is smoke marijuana, which the Ethiopian farmers here grow for them. Some people in the town don’t like this, as our children have also started to use this drug. We like them as they integrate and there is a lot of inter-marriage, but the marijuana has to stop,” says 27-year-old mechanic Adbul Onduka.(Bhalla).

A fourth complaint out Rasta’s is simply that their religious beliefs clash with those of other Muslim and Christian beliefs.

The Rasta’s that are currently living in Shashemene welcome any African that wants to come to live in their community to come. They say their community can handle any amount of people that want to come back to African. The Rasta’s believe that they will some day turn the town of Shashemene into the most important city in Africa. They claim that some day it will be a thriving African city that will be able to defeat the oppression of the “White Man”. As of now the Rasta’s have done little to nothing to improve Shashemene.




It is not appropriate to use the Ethiopian/ Lion of Judah flag with a marijuana leaf. It is extremely disrespectful to deface a flag in this way, please update this.

    OK Will do Sorry.

Some of these statements obviously derive from a perceived level of ignorance. Rastafari does not uphold a degraded thought process towards women. The behavior documented and exhibited in this article is one reflected from a personal ideology, not that of a collective mind state representing Rastafari. This article contains a multitude of misinformation, and should be taken in the aspect of how it starts off, “most people do not know what Rastafari really is, or what it represents”.

Rastafari is cult, this article is truth.
There is no foundation to this, just he says, she says. The treatment of women in particular is abusive and narcissistic. The people following this nonsense are confused.


So you are taking one person’s view as the whole truth? Who is this great writer? Please, do yourself a service and look for the correct information yourself. Seek and you will find. Be sure to do it with a clean heart and mind for your own sake.

partially true but yes some statements
. might have been derived from a ignorant or maybe, yes, a personal ideology point of view which renders or deems the entire article null and void….

This article is misleading and full of half-truths anyone interested in Rastafari should research and seek for themselves with a clear conscience.Rasta livity is positive and uplifting, men are imperfect and may commit wrongs but the movement is grounded in righteousness.

The month of October marks Black History Month, a time to remember the contributions and achievements of black people nationally and worldwide.


Q)what is a true rastafarian ,A),,a person whom only speaks the truth .a person whom strives for world peace ..a person whom shares positive information. a person who is interested in living .a person whom knows that HIM is worthy of praise. a person whom is concious .a person whom abides by a certain diet( constant) ,a person who does not use alcohol=. so maybee there are more rastas than thought of ? blessins to all mankind ,peace and love ,jah ital

I must say I’ve loved reggae for a long time, and being a 49 year old bald man it’s probably the last thing you’d think I’d listen too, it helps me chill it’s as good now as it was then. The Rastaman is a little confusing though. Haile Selassie king of kings , lord of lords. Admitted himself to be a man of flesh and blood, and that when he passed someone else would take his place. Rasta believe he cannot die…He died. The Rasta claims to be all for peace and living in harmony and spirituality..being poor doesn’t breed harmony and spirituality, it breeds violence, and hate because when your poor you can blame.. Sorry if I’ve pissed people off. I think Rastafarianism had a place, it was a long time ago when I was alive

Read the first 3 paragraphs and stopped….so much misinformation…

Maybe u should not say Rasta people…Rasta’s are totally against abusive behaviour…
I think you should research more.
Rasta women are already ladies who got self respect and also love in their hearts..

This article is utter trash and disrespectful. Some of the comments are equally on par.
Why didn’t the author bother to research correctly

And why are the admins allowing asinine comments from bigots?

Selassie I know


One of his student’s (William Grant) wrote this original and unedited paper on April 25, 2002.

This version has some additional information included but most of the text is verbatim….

Rastafarian teach about love and peace how can they abuse women?this is pure ignorance… please search and understand before coming out like this.

Some interesting information. The writer however got one part wrong. Rastafarians are not violent or lazy; I do not know of the habits they pick up in Ethiopia but in Jamaica, Rastas refer to their women as queen and treat them likewise. As a matter of fact, if Rasta’s social behaviour does not reflect Babylon’s culture then saying that the men can have many partners or are abusive to women is preposterous.

I love d ganja part

Totally misleading information. Rastafarianism chant down negativity always. Please don’t let people astray.

An interesting read, however your comments were very reassuring. The writing took a negative turn…My Rasta boyfriend is amazing and one day I will be His Queen.

WELCOME TO THE GREAT BROTHERHOOD ILLUMINATI KINGDOM, WHERE YOU FOUND ALL KINDS OF HAPPINESS, BLESSING, JOY IN LIFE. Are you tired with the kind of life you are living today do you want your life to be change totally, and for you to fulfill your dream, then you have the opportunity to join now so that your life story will be change immediately. Are you poor and you want to become rich in life or you want to be famous in life, are you a graduate looking for job or a business man or woman or you want to be famous and powerful, you don’t have to waste any of your time, are you suffering in life, make up your mind and join the Illuminati kingdom to become a wealthy man or woman and also to become famous and powerful in life contact the illuminati agent Mr chris +1(925)954-9316 or text that number You can also message agent christ via the telegram below

Rasta is peace unity love truthfulness no envy hardwork no alcohol drink, no cigarette smoking,Ganja only,Good for meditation at morning and sometimes there days after….Rasta is never wrong in whatever cos he got nah and I Tuff Seed jah and I only

Testimony on how i finally join the illuminate after many scammers stole from me All thanks to master Richard Mark for making me who i am today, i pledge to remain loyal and humble to the illuminate. i was being stolen-from and really heart broken untill i found light by contacting mr Richard Mark through a good friend of mine from abroad, and i didnt regret it. i’m not so greedy to keep this free opportunity to myself because mr Richard Mark and the hood as a whole will not be pleased with me. so i’ll also urge you to join and end your poverty, hard life, brokeness and get famous today in the illuminate. you can contact mr Richard Mark via whastapp +2349159559277 or he’ll reply you asap and get you started on your journey to success………………………………

A lot of negative and misleading information.

Many Rasta views on sex and gender might not gel with modern perceptions very well, and like with all demographics you’ll find people with prejudices, but honestly this article feels as if it’s intent on focusing on what negatives might arise from individuals proclaiming themselves Rasta, while ignoring the heap of good Rasta has done for many social causes such as the advocacy for medicinal cannabis, anti-racism, access to music, wealth redistribution and anti colonialism.

I am not a Rasta. But as young man, Rastas welcomed me with open arms. We reasoned, sang songs and such together. People would say horrible things about the Rastamen, especially when they saw me, a little white boy, walking with them, making assumptions unworthy of repeating. This article doesn’t help Rasta, it encourages prejudice.

And many Rastamen call their partners Queen and/or Empress and believe that as mothers of creation they are royalty.

Disappointed here.

The part that Rastas are abusive to their women seems wrong, I’m fro kenya and have interacted with a few Rastas, they refer to the women as empress, they being the kings of the land … There’s a lot of questionable information in this article.. truth is Rasta as a people is a difficult field to venture, beliefs and lifestyle differ from one Rasta to the other,

Too much misinformation especially on the part of Rastaman being lazy and beating an empress, they are not traits of a true Ras at all

Testimony on how i finally join the illuminate after many scammers stole from me All thanks to master Richard Mark for making me who i am today, i pledge to remain loyal and humble to the illuminate. i was being stolen-from and really heart broken untill i found light by contacting mr Richard Mark through a good friend of mine from abroad, and i didnt regret it. i’m not so greedy to keep this free opportunity to myself because mr Richard Mark and the hood as a whole will not be pleased with me. so i’ll also urge you to join and end your poverty, hard life, brokeness and get famous today in the illuminate. you can contact mr Richard Mark via whastapp +2349159559277 or he’ll reply you asap and get you started on your journey to success

I’m Irish and have spent 30 plus years in the company of countless rastas, and have to say that both men and women are some of the best people I have ever met, I do believe this site’s information is flawed at the highest level, and not what I have experienced in 30 years of enjoying rasta culture. Don’t believe the hate.!!!

Rasta is all about peace,love and togetherness moreover observing livity and doing the right alwayz…even though it has a strong belief,rastamans traits can be counted as a culture too

Am a true Rastafarian l want to know more

Testimony on how i finally join the illuminate after many scammers stole from me All thanks to master Mr. ALUFA for making who i am today, i pledge to remain loyal and humble to the illuminate. i was being stolen-from and really hearth broken until i found light by contacting Mr. ALUFA through a good friend of mine from abroad, and i didn’t regret it.i’m not so greedy to keep this free opportunity to myself because Mr. ALUFA and the hood as a whole will not be pleased with me. so i’ll also urge you to join and end your poverty, hard life, brokenness and get famous today in the illuminate. you can contact Mr. ALUFA via Email: (brotherhoodi692@gmail.com) Whats-app and call (+234918100439) he’ll reply you asap and get you started on your journey to success.

Post a comment