Taíno: Indigenous Caribbeans

Completing this week with the largest indigenous Caribbean ethnic group, BHM365 sheds the light on another group who has changed the Americas.

The Taíno were an Arawak people who were the indigenous people of the Caribbean and Florida. At the time of European contact in the late 15th century, they were the principal inhabitants of most of Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola (the Dominican Republic and Haiti), and Puerto Rico.

In the Greater Antilles, the northern Lesser Antilles, and the Bahamas, they were known as the Lucayans and spoke the Taíno language, a derivative of the the Arawakan languages.

The ancestors of the Taíno entered the Caribbean from South America. At the time of contact, the Taíno were divided into three broad groups, known as the Western Taíno (Jamaica, most of Cuba, and the Bahamas), the Classic Taíno (Hispaniola and Puerto Rico) and the Eastern Taíno (northern Lesser Antilles). A fourth, lesser known group went on to travel to Florida and divided into tribes. At present, we know there are four named tribes; the Tequesta, Calusa, Jaega and Ais. Other tribes are known to have settled in Florida, but their names are not known.

At the time of Columbus’ arrival in 1492, there were five Taíno chiefdoms and territories on Hispaniola, each led by a principal Cacique (chieftain), to whom tribute was paid. Ayiti (“land of high mountains”) was the indigenous Taíno name for the mountainous side of the island of Hispaniola, which has retained its name as Haïti in French.

Cuba, the largest island of the Antilles, was originally divided into 29 chiefdoms. Most of the native settlements later became the site of Spanish colonial cities retaining the original Taíno names. For instance; Havana,Batabanó, Camagüey, Baracoa and Bayamo are still recognised by their Taino names.

Puerto Rico also was divided into chiefdoms. As the hereditary head chief of Taíno tribes, the cacique was paid significant tribute. At the time of the Spanish conquest, the largest Taíno population centers may have contained over 3,000 people each.

The Taíno were historically enemies of the neighbouring Carib tribes, another group with origins in South America, who lived principally in the Lesser Antilles. The relationship between the two groups has been the subject of much study. For much of the 15th century, the Taíno tribe was being driven to the northeast in the Caribbean and out of what is now South America, because of raids by the Carib, resulting in Women being taken in raids and many Carib women speaking Taíno.

The Spaniards, who first arrived in the Bahamas, Cuba, and Hispaniola in 1492, and later in Puerto Rico, did not bring women in the first expeditions. They took Taíno women for their common-law wives, resulting in mestizo children. Sexual violence in Hispaniola with the Taíno women by the Spanish was also common. Scholars suggest there was substantial racial and cultural mixing in Cuba, as well, and several Indian pueblos survived into the 19th century.

The Taíno became nearly extinct as a culture following settlement by Spanish colonists, primarily due to infectious diseases to which they had no immunity. The first recorded smallpox outbreak in Hispaniola occurred in December 1518 or January 1519. The 1518 smallpox epidemic killed 90% of the natives who had not already perished. Warfare and harsh enslavement by the colonists had also caused many deaths. By 1548, the native population had declined to fewer than 500. Starting in about 1840, there have been attempts to create a quasi-indigenous Taino identity in rural areas of Cuba, the Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico. This trend accelerated among the Puerto Rican community in the United States in the 1960s.


The Taíno people, or Taíno culture, has been classified by some authorities as belonging to the Arawak, as their language was considered to belong to the Arawak language family, the languages of which were present throughout the Caribbean, and much of Central and South America.
The early ethnohistorian, Daniel Garrison Brinton, called the Taíno people the “Island Arawak”. Nevertheless, contemporary scholars have recognized that the Taíno had developed a distinct language and culture.

Modern historians, linguists and anthropologists now hold that the term Taíno should refer to all the Taíno/Arawak tribes except for the Caribs, who are not seen to belong to the same people. Linguists continue to debate whether the Carib language is an Arawakan dialect or creole language, or perhaps an individual language, with an Arawakan pidgin used for communication purposes.

Spaniards and Taíno

Columbus and his crew, landing on an island in the Bahamas on October 12, 1492, were the first Europeans to encounter the Taíno people. Columbus described the Taínos as a physically tall, well-proportioned people, with a noble and kind personality.

Columbus wrote:

They traded with us and gave us everything they had, with good will…they took great delight in pleasing us…They are very gentle and without knowledge of what is evil; nor do they murder or steal…Your highness may believe that in all the world there can be no better people…They love their neighbours as themselves, and they have the sweetest talk in the world, and are gentle and always laughing.

At this time, the neighbors of the Taíno were the Guanahatabeys in the western tip of Cuba, the Island-Caribs in the Lesser Antilles from Guadeloupe to Grenada, and the Timacua and Ais tribes of Florida. The Taíno called the island Guanahaní which Columbus renamed as San Salvador (Spanish for “Holy Savior”). Columbus called the Taíno “Indians”, a reference that has grown to encompass all the indigenous peoples of the Western Hemisphere. A group of Taíno people accompanied Columbus on his return voyage back to Spain.

On Columbus’ second voyage, he began to require tribute from the Taíno in Hispaniola. According to Kirkpatrick Sale, each adult over 14 years of age was expected to deliver a hawks bell full of gold every three months, or when this was lacking, twenty-five pounds of spun cotton. If this tribute was not brought, the Spanish cut off the hands of the Taíno and left them to bleed to death. These cruel practices inspired many revolts by the Taíno and campaigns against the Spanish —some being successful, some not.

In 1511, several caciques in Puerto Rico, such as Agüeybaná II, Arasibo, Hayuya, Jumacao, Urayoán, Guarionex, and Orocobix, allied with the Carib and tried to oust the Spaniards. The revolt was suppressed by the Indio-Spanish forces of Governor Juan Ponce de León. Hatuey, a Taíno chieftain who had fled from Hispaniola to Cuba with 400 natives to unite the Cuban natives, was burned at the stake on February 2, 1512.

In Hispaniola, a Taíno chieftain named Enriquillo mobilized over 3,000 Taíno in a successful rebellion in the 1520s. These Taíno were accorded land and a charter from the royal administration. Despite the small Spanish military presence in the region, they often used diplomatic divisions and, with help from powerful native allies, controlled most of the region. In exchange for a seasonal salary, religious and language education, the Taíno were required to work for Spanish and Indian land owners. This system of labor was part of the ‘encomienda’- the strongest protecting the weak for the purpose of economic gain .

 Modern Taino Heritage

Groups of people currently identify as Taíno, most notably among the Puerto Ricans and Dominicans, both on the islands and on United States mainland. The concept of the “living Taíno” has been proven in a census in 2002. Some scholars, such as Jalil Sued Badillo, an ethnohistorian at the University of Puerto Rico, assert that the official Spanish historical record speak of the disappearance of the Taínos, but survivors had descendants and intermarried with other ethnic groups. Recent research notes a high percentage of mixed or tri-racial ancestry among people in Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic, with those claiming Taíno ancestry also having Spanish and African ancestry.



Arawak and Taino Indians have historically been from Venezuela and were some of the first inhabitants of Trinidad and Tobago. Listen to them speak and compare their accents and words that they use to how Trinidadians speak today and you will hear the same notes, in their features you will see the resemblance more than any other island in the Caribbean. Why does this article does not mention Trinadad at all???

I hope there is no claim that these people were black! My mate made me research the Taino coz he is from Jamaica and claimed the blacks were alreay there when Columbys arrived. I told him no The blacks were brought from Africa as slaves.Where the indigenous South AericN TRIBES came from is subject to much speculation ie crosing over the top ver many many years.

The American indians were and still are originally black as the whole entire planet was originally black so Erico Crowther, I’m not sure why you would make such an ignorant statement. Do you fear “black” people? The “indians” shown in the movies are actually Mongoloid invaders from Siberians (Asia). Black people inhabited the Americas before Africans ever came over here. I have Taino ancestry yet thanks to white people, i’ve been separated from my culture and am now classified as “black.” I’m glad our true identity upsets you though. It’s hilarious.

All inhabitants on the planet can trace their roots back to Africa so if what you are saying is that the whole planet is from Africa then you would be correct, but the whole planet is not “Black” since that term and what it has come to embody is relatively new. Dominique, you seem slightly misguided.

It is truly sad how the so called white supremacist can not and will not recognize that the so called black race are the presidents of this planet!

Thank you Dominique, I would like to just add that BLACK is not a race, it is a connotation coined by europeans in order for the European to differentiate himself from other cultures and to divide and rule. The grouping of Black people is actually made up of a diverse and large number of indigenous peoples and tribes across the world, so no not all black people come from Africa and there were indigenous Black people living in the Americas, the Caribbean and Asia long before the European arrival. Further to which to speculate and say that black peoples existence in certain areas of the world was only due to the trans atlantic slave trade is absurd as; if you look at what is being told in many versions of history, it is apparent that no human could have survived being transported across the atlantic at sea in such conditions and virtually all would have died there are s many lies and mistruths throughout this part of history. Just thought i would add my 2 pence 😉

Yes.. Africans were apart of earlier expeditions around the world. Why is that so hard to believe? Sheesh! “Black History” does not begin with slavery. FYI: Read THEY CAME BEFORE COLUMBUS by Ivan Van Sertima

i would agree with denise african americans were already here before slavery do to trades and such

Taino dakia

I have been doing a lot of research my brothers and sister and the term black is a brand the european try to put on us just like”indians ” were put on my forefathers who where taino aboriginals . Yes you all have many key points , there where high pigment humans in northwest amexem and south west amexem aka”americas” and also in the islands around them . With this being said we can not blame the low pigment we must love them and understand what has happen in the past we must learn and build are communites and not be separated by blacks red yellow or white we are all living beings and we must all love each other .THERE IS ONLY ONE RACE ON THE FACE OF THE EARTH AND THAT IS THE HUMAN RACE . I am a taino and i love my ancestors so we must learn and not hate .

All ppl r connectedd one way or another… Africa civilised 1st while us europeans were neandrothalds in caves sttill… Regarfdless some freaks breeded with the neandrothals and humans just spreqd around the world.. Fact is we are all connected brothers and sisterwls of thids planet and can all ttrace our roots back to only 1 start… Possibly also other humans from outter sspace could have also intervened lol… Forgive the mis spelling my screen is crqcked

To say that there was open ocean trade between Africa and the Americas is a extraordinary claim with no extraordinary evidence to back it up. With the exception of Northeast Africa and Egypt there is no evidence of a seafaring history. For the most part they didn’t even populate islands off their own coast. The Egyptian galleys that evolved into the various galleys used on the Mediterranean are fine for the Mediterranean, Red Sea, and coastal sailing but not for crossing oceans. Dhows would have been capable, but there is no evidence they were used for anything other than crossing back and forth across the Arabian Sea, never far from land. Chinese junks could have made the trip, but there isn’t any evidence they did. Though there is documentation a fleet of junks sailed from China through the Macala straight and followed the coast all the way around the Cape of Africa. In the Caribbean they did very impressive things with their dugout canoes, wide beam and added freeboard with somewhat of a keel. They were good at island hoping and coastal sailing, but doubtful they crossed oceans. There is no doubt there would have been accidental crossings of the Atlantic. If you get too far off the coast of West Africa the current and trade winds are going to take you to Brazil whether you like it or not. Even during the days of the great clipper races the route around Africa to Europe took them just off the coast of Brazil. And there is some evidence that before Columbus some people from the new world may have washed up on the shores of Ireland. But such accidental crossings would have been a one way trip. There is one oral tradition that an African King sent out a fleet of boats westbound from Africa, but they never returned and their fate is unknown. There is a theory that Chinese sailors were crossing the Pacific. Indeed it would be possible to day sail from island to island from Japan all the way to Alaska. So the theory isn’t implausible, but there is no known written history of it, and very weak physical evidence. There has been found several stone anchors off the west coast of North America, however there is no way to date them, and they could easily be 19th and 20th century anchors. Only Polynesian and Melanesian sailors had the technology and a system of navigation capable of early open ocean sailing. Their catamarans were stable enough and capable of carrying the supplies needed. They also had a system of navigation that didn’t require a compas or any other equipment. And it’s almost certain they did at least reach South America, only due to the fact that sweet potatoes were cultivated in South America, but are found throughout much of Oceania. But trade between Africa and the Americas, any evidence is subjective at best. A few years ago some got excited about toxicology test done on Egyptian mummies showing traces of cocain and nicotine, however nobody who has repeated those tests have been able to duplicate the results.

The Taino are a gorgeous shade of reddish brown like many other Native Americans. I know because my flatmate is one. She’s descended from the indigenous people of Jamaica who were driven there from Venezuela due to conflict with the Carib Indians. None of her family look at all African. They look more South East Asian or Maori.

@TIGGY you statement about shades are incorrect as the definition of American in Websters Dictionary 1865 states, “The various copper-colored people that Europeans encountered when they came” just look at a copper penny.

Gwiz Columbus and his unconscious racial bias hey . if only he had sensitivity training

@Tiggy Seriously? First off, the facts are solid that the very oldest American on record was very dark in complexion and shared DNA with those of the indigenous Australians, the Aborigines. Studies proved that they were killed and pushed further into South America once the Mongaloids (Native Americans with Asian descent) migrated here toward the end of the ice age. I’m sure your friend, just like all the rest, family had been apart of the intermixing and colonialism to give them the appearance that they now have.

Why is Taino history being represented on black history month? Tainos ARE NOT African wtf!!!

All of you should do a search on the Olmec head (civilization), which is known as the first civilized race in the Americas.
I visited a museum while in Veracruz, Mexico and saw a picture framed document that stated the Egyptian sailed to that area 1000 years before Columbus. There was also a large picture of the inhabitants that greeted the Spanish up on there first arrival in that area, which were African ancestry.
But of cause everyone knows that the world races are from Africa without any doubt, unless you believe in the fantasy land story of religions and not the facts of science (DNA and genealogy- bones – fossil).

@ CJ. I’m surprise that you think that when someone refer to black people they refer to Africa. I understand the stigma placed on Africa, but The ancient empires which were not in Africa were black empires: Assyria, Babylon, Medeo-Persia, partl of Greece, part of Rome, the Phoenicians, Israel and early British empire, all fully black. Let us stop riding the bull and get to the facts. How is that for a good history lesson. I love white people. But let’s face it; they are a product of the black man’s decadence. They are the children of the Blacks. Its all about the younger wants to rule the elder. All this is 100%historically and scientifically accurate. Just because the white Europeans have spread their white seed in the blacks and on their land does not prove that they were there first. Its all a divide and conquer strategy–smart.

Just like never-enslaved Africans and other indigenous peoples, ancient Caribbean peoples are not be considered “black”. The concept of “Black” stems from the early American age, when the colonists arrived to the land with their enslaved persons. Ancient Caribbean peoples were never enslaved on American soil and, thus, we are not apart of the formerly enslaved portion of humanity that inhabits the Earth as African-Americans, also known as “Black”. This article should not even be on this website.

Well said Ron Jean

What you were taught in school is false. Reverse it all and you’ll get the answer. There was an ancient Egyptian dwelling found in The Grand Canyon which predates Egypt as we know it and the great exodus originated in the Americas. Columbus knew who was here and had Hebrew translators. In his book “Book of prophecies” he spoke on needing to find MT.Zion and Jerusalem because he believed it to be in the Americas. Jerusalem is said to be the center or naval of the world, yet that location is somewhere in Turkey and what is known today as Jerusalem in the fraud country of Israel was originally supposed to be located in Saudi Arabia?(They completely mind fucked us y’all, but I’m serious). There is a city in Peru called Cuzco which literally means navel of the world and the compound located there matches the exact description as The Temple of David in scripture. Everything described is 100% per scripture. Natives have always called the Americas the promised land as well, so anything is possible. Also, DNA taken from a so called African American(hate that label) man from South Carolina revealed Aboriginal American DNA with no trace of African DNA and was dated further back than the first African DNA. There is also hidden and torn down pyramids throughout North America, containing burial mounds and mummified remains, that were up and down the Mississippi valley. Hebrew artifacts have been found all over the us, with a paleo Hebrew stone engraved with the 10 commandments. How Egypt is described is exactly the physical description of where Memphis Tennessee is in regards to the river “Nile” but accurate to this side, not over there. As crazy as it sounds, I don’t find it far fetched and with a ton of research have found plenty of evidence corroborating what I’ve said. I don’t believe anything I was taught in school and go by the “as above, so below” mantra because when they say up, you better look down, and if they say left, it’s right. The information is there, you just have to look. It would explain why the pyramids here and the Egyptian dwelling in the grand canyon are hidden or torn down. Natives also tell stories of being visited by Atlanteans and why there is a strong native American I fluency in Africa as well as corn being from here and records of it being o we there pre Colombian era. Just dig y’all. The only people who call the,selves “tribes” are here, which could explain the lost tribes of Israel. And plenty of documentation on European writers stating the absolute exact way of life israelites lived. Also, israelites were known as mystics or sprittual ppl as opposed to a religion, which correlates with natives. But it will never be known for obvious reasons. I have close friends and cousins who are so called African American who know of their indigenous roots, with no African ancestry, which makes sense, due to my own indigenous ancestry. It was almost impossible due to the currents of the Atlantic to sail from Africa to here, but the currents flow from the carribean, up the east coast, to nova Scotia, across to Europe and down to the west coast of Africa. They took the natives from here, sold us in Europe, traded and sold in Africa, then came back and told the ppl they were Africans. Those DNA ancestry places lie about the results. Don’t trust that. There’s a different agenda with that whole deal. Just research what I’ve said. Don’t take my word for it….

And, like it or not, every shade and race of people have been on earth since the beginning. The most High created diversity. Dogs are different, but the same species. White cats black cats. Same difference. White people are not new to the planet. There were so called white Sumerians.You can learn a lot from these native elders. They know a lot more than you think. Do the history. This planet has always been diverse….

Haavіng read this I thought it was extremely informative.
I appreciate you spending some time and energy to put tһЬis content together.

I once gain find myself spending a significant amount
of time both reɑding and ⅼeaνіng comments. But so what, it wаs stiⅼl

To the person who said Caribbean people were never enslaved. You are beyond incorrect. It even states in Columbus’ journal that he intended to enslave them. It’s also been proven that they actually were enslaved.

There is nothing like african ancestry in the West Indies and America. We Negas are Taino or Arawak. Other asiatic tribes claim of course to be Indians, so they could bound to the land. Indigenous people (most of them) think they are africans. You should think that, so they can kick you out in a Land, you have Tribal connections with, but that is not your land. There are Africans in America, promoting false knowledge and telling you, that you came from Africa.

Seriously!!! Some people have to come to sites like these to learn their back round history!!! Why those any other race have anything to say when this is sopuse to be about Tainos!!!!! PUERTO RICO!!! Is an ISLAND!! Separated by oceans from the rest of the world!!! BORICUAS STAND UP!!! We have a voice too!!!

It’s all about narrative. History will always have a million different names and tribes for so called “black” people. It’s simple, indigenous people brown skinned and there are many shades but DNA does not lie. The DNA is so strong, “they” call it alien. KNOW THYSELF.

god bless all . we are all brothers and sisters of humanity from gods son louis fortunato

We are all in this together!! and we are all a part of one big race – Humans

The Garinagu (Garifuna) still speak Arawak and Carib in a 60/40 split. I showed my mom a video from a South American Arawak group, covered the subtitles and she was able to understand it. We are BLACK by the way and were that way BEFORE Columbus came. Check out South American Galibi and Karina (Carib) people. MANY of them are dark skin with afro textured hair.

OMG ppl Tainos are Indians period!!! So stop the non sense. Yes we all originated from Africa but between migrating and continents separating and shifting. African ancestry dilutes itself from geographic standards as well. Why don’t Africans say they are from Ireland pretty sure they got African DNA. What about Italy pretty sure they got African in them too. But that’s not the case. We Tainos are Indians that’s that. Africans are not Indians they African. Let’s us have that sheesh

I don’t know about America and Caribbean but I do know that all inhabitants of Africa were dark skin ( more dark or little little) and also all inhabitants of Australia were dark skin and look 100% like African ( are they cousins? I guess) and I do know that the trans-Atlantic is true you just have to go visit some places in Ghana or Senegal, Benin… where black peoples were put there before their departure for America and the Caribbean. So if you are mixed and you feel yourself black that’s okay if you feel yourself white or Indian that’s fine too! I do not know if there were black peoples in America before slavery. But If there was so its possible because the first who discovered America before Columbus was black from west Africa. Also I do not believe that black were the first race in the world ( all races exist at the same time and period). And want to let you know that black peoples problems started when they began following foreign gods ( Christianity and Islam) before Jesus Christ I believe that black peoples was proud and strong with everything they need to be happy and successful, that’s why Egypt Ethiopia and Soudan were the center of the world. But for one mistake we black peoples today facing many issues. Hope we will change the world

Some of the people of Haiti and the Dominican Republic as well as other Caribbean Islanders have Native Indian a.k.a Indigenous ancestry. I’m tired of some people who say that we are extinct, we are not. My father’s parents are from Haiti, his mother was the daughter of a half Haitian and Dominican father whose ancestry comes from the Taínos of Haiti and D.R. and her mother was a born to a European born White French father and Taíno Indian mother. As for my father’s father he was Haitian born to a Taíno mother and a half Syrian and Taíno father. My mother is an American woman born to an ethnic European White American mother of Polish descent and her father was of mixed race, his mother was born in the U.S.A and she was of mixed Puerto Rican (of European White Spanish descent), Portuguese, and Dutch ancestry, his father also an American was of mixed African American, Afro British West Indian specifically Afro Barbadian, Cherokee Native American Indian, and Chinese descent.



Gigantic stone head of Negritic African
during the Olmec (Xi) Civilization

By Paul Barton

Negritic African The earliest people in the Americas were people of the Negritic African race, who entered the Americas perhaps as early as 100,000 years ago, by way of the bering straight and about thirty thousand years ago in a worldwide maritime undertaking that included journeys from the then wet and lake filled Sahara towards the Indian Ocean and the Pacific, and from West Africa across the Atlantic Ocean towards the Americas.
According to the Gladwin Thesis, this ancient journey occurred, particularly about 75,000 years ago and included Black Pygmies, Black Negritic peoples and Black Australoids similar to the Aboriginal Black people of Australia and parts of Asia, including India.

The Jamaicans Domicans Haitians Taino are all descendants of Africa. Yes the skin may now be lightened but that’s because of the whitening as a result of colonialism. History teaches us that all along North Africa or just Egypt the Africans were do,I at in Trade and culture. The race mixing is what led to the lightening. The first Chinese,the first Japanese were also of African descent The peony of color are and always ha e been the dominant race whereas those lacking melanin are and have been the minority. But of course in school black history starts with enslavement. To the real history of People with melanin

not a single pre-columbian Native America specimen so far has yielded any African DNA whatsoever. Why is that if you’ve supposedly been here since 50k BCE?

Ivan Van sertima not only DELIBERATELY referenced outdated sources that were outdated EVEN FOR HIS TIME but he also resorted to exclusively referencing the works and opinions of non-reputable pseudo scholars that had similar cultural-diffusionist agendas as he did. Now why would ANYONE do that unless, of course, they were trying to FORCE certain information to fit their own personal agendas?

He cites sources that were written before most knowledge of Olmec civilization even existed- details on Olmec ruins were not published until a 1925 expedition by Tulane University (Carmack 26), La Venta wasn’t even fully excavated until 1943 by Mathew Sterling (Carmack 27), and there were no definitive dates on Mesoamerican civilizations as a whole.

Yet, he cites Leo Wiener’s “Before Columbus” from 1925, Donald Mackenzie’s “Myths in Pre-Columbian America” written in 1923, and Grafton Elliot Smith’s works from 1915 to 1923. Smith, for example, not only believed that civilization originated from white rulers of Egypt and then spread throughout the world, but that certain races, such as aboriginals of Australia were racially inferior (Cooke). He also cites a piece called “African Explorers in the New World” by Harold Lawrence that was published in “The Crisis” (a magazine connected with the NAACP which leans towards heavy Black nationalism). This is analogous to consulting the NOI “research group” website for, well, anything.

From beginning to end, his book is filled with word salad, storytelling, and poetic language that is meant to conjure up the imagination of uneducated people who would never cross reference his claims. If he was so absolutely certain that he had accurate premises from which to derive such conclusions, he should’ve submitted his work for peer review so as to at least be made aware of any errors it may have and then publish. Instead, he chose to tell a story- one now constantly referenced by millions of pseudo scholars around the world but let’s get into some of its’ specifics…

In 1780 a Christian priest by the name of Abbe Hervas, who became interested in studying the Aztec version of the MesoAmerican calendar, wrote a letter to historian Francesco Saverio Clavigero promoting his theory that:

“The Mexican year began upon the 26th of February, a day celebrated in the era of Nabonassar, which was fixed by the Egyptians 747 years before the Christian era… If those [Mexican] priests fixed also upon this day as an epoch, because it was celebrated in Egypt, we have there the Mexican Calendar agreeing with the Egyptian. But independent of this, it is certain, that the Mexican Calendar conformed greatly with the Egyptian.”

1. This is circular logic “if the Mexican calendar began on Feb 26th because Egypt’s began on Feb 26th then the Mexican calendar began on Feb 26th because Egypt’s began on Feb 26th”.

2. Hervas uses such non-sequitur rhetoric because he had a personal belief that the Toltecs were directly from Asia and that they had contact with Egyptians at some point along the way around 800 BCE.

3. The Feb 26th correlation that he used for the Meshika New Year is wrong.

4. Even if the Feb 26th correlation that he used for the Meshika New Year was correct, the MesoAmerican calendar model itself is oppositely different from the Egyptians’. The MesoAmericans’ is composed of various small cycles, all interacting with one another (13×20, 18×20+5) to create bigger ones (260×365), and whose adjustments (a leap day every 4 years, a 4 day supression every 520 years) would disintegrate any correlation with any other calendar system in the world unless this latter had the same adjustments.

5. The only reason why the Feb 26th date began to be “celebrated in the era of Nabonassar” was because he had reformed the Babylonian calendar (creating interacalary months) to synchronize lunar and solar calendars and thus establishing an eighteen year cycle.

However, Hervas takes Ptolemy at his word, in the “Almagest” (3.7), that this established a universal “Anno Nabonassari”, when, in fact, the only reason Nabu-nasir’s name is even remembered is because Ptolemy and other Hellenistic astronomers used his calendar to calculate the motion of the stars because it was only with the ascension of Nabonassar that complete and careful astronomical and calendrical records began (in Babylon), which Ptolemy drew upon.

Nor was this the only “era” used by Ptolemy; he also said that the calendar began “anew” with Philippus Aridaeus, Caesar Augustus, Hadrian, and Antoninus Pius. He did not mean that the calendar literally started to mark time for each of these men; rather, this was how Ptolemy was referencing dates to try to reduce confusion created by the traditional (eastern) practice of counting years by the name of the monarch (i.e. “the third year of Cleopatra VII”, etc). Nabonassar simply came first because he had the oldest usable records. Besides, it would have been strange for Egypt to have used a Babylonian king to define their calendar for all time (see Olaf Pedersen, A Survey of the Almagest, 2010, pg.126-128).

Yet, Ivan Van Sertima did not care about any of this. As long as someone, somewhere, said something he could use for his Afrocentric propaganda, he’d use it and on page 173, as well as all throughout the book, he did.

“Many people feel a certain kind of happiness when they read my book. A certain kind of shadow lifts. The psyche of blacks is raised. No man who believes his history began with slavery can be a healthy man.” – Ivan Van Sertima

Gov records state that about 500,000 Africans were brought to the USA during the trans-Atlantic slave trade with 90% of them being men. The 1790 census say that there were about
10 million Negros/People of color in the U.S. at that time. The numbers don’t match! In the early 1900s Virginia made all darker Native-Americans declare to be Negro/Colored. I no longer call my-self African-American. I am an Aboriginal American and the proof is written across my face from generations of ancestors when I look in the mirror! My older relatives claim Native ancestry. Who should believe, them and the mirror, or some lying history books?
My grand-mother was born in 1882 and passed when I ten. According to my father’s birth certificate she was 50% Native. On my mom’s side, my aunt says her grandmother was full Native-Amer probably Monocan ! I studied Geology, thus I know about plate tectonics and sea floor spread and other earth activities, but there is a new theory on the scene called Catastrophic Geology. This theory is founded on the idea that certain geologic events happen over a much shorter time period then previously believed and were quite violent. Some believe that Atlantis was between Africa and the Americas before the ocean swallowed it up, thus a much shorter journey or boat ride. If you think that is funny, geologic predictions say that a fault along the Mid-Atlantic ridge is due to snap between now and the next 400 years, and when this happens more land will vanish! In fact Yellow-stone is a big cap or caldera on a super-volcano. We know little about history or geology and that comes from the Wingina Wolf(me)! Google catastrophic geology, it will blow your mind!
and the next

No Roderick. You are African American. You can pretend to be whatever you want but you are trying to steal peoples culture and claim it as you own. native Americans werent African


I do not think my Taíno ancestors were black. I think they were the same color as I am, kind of a light tan white.

Anyways, anyone wishing to ask questions…find us here!

Why is this under “black history”? This is Native history. Afrocentrics idiots need to stop stealing others cultures.

Actually the Taino tribe came from the Arawak tribe which came from Africa! My great great grandfather was Taino and his family owns a town in Trinidad! Ancient Taino ppl were a pretty reddish brown or black complexion! Also they found the oldest bones in America and the resembled African. Look it up! We are the original ppl! If you look at the Pangea map america and all of that were connected until
an earthquake separated the lands! In the Bible (book of the living) that is mention when they say that god broke apart the lands and water was filled between them…

Nice to see Non black history being celebrated on BHM as well.
Inclusion is important and its good to see that people recognize there are more than two colors in the rainbow. +1 for Latin history

Tah, Pangea began breaking apart about 175 million years ago. The Cenozoic (era of when mammals began to appear) did not even start until 65 million years ago. Homo Sapiens did not appear until about 300,000 years ago in Africa. By that time, the lands had shifted quite far apart. The Pangea theory is just not very credible. What matters is that we are all brothers and sisters in this world.

It is interesting that in this age of technology when so much information is at our fingertips we are still using divisive words to hurt others. There is still a war on being black and to purge ourselves of ALL being descendants of Lucy in Africa. The first divisive comment was to immediately to separate black/African people from the Indigenous. There literally does not have to be a war against Africanness if we choose for it not to be this way. My great great grandfather on my mothers side is of Taino descent by way of Cuba who married a blackfoot Native American and had numerous children. He came to America in 1892. My fathers side is of African descent by way of Ghana descent. I did not know that somehow I had to choose between the two cultures. I will not choose between them as I am both. I will however choose love. I send love and light to all people who have been stripped of their culture and just want a place with people who look like them to call home. I pray healing for our ancestors who endured were raped, sickened by disease and exploited by the hands of cruel human beings. I love you!

Black people means Africans..
Don’t know why that’s so hard to understand.. and DNA already proved all modern humans trace back to the land called Africa.. what you call yourselves today, is after the fact.. anybody from any of these history stories , are the same humans who just separated into different groups after the migrated out of Africa.. the arguments of who’s this or that is irrelevant because genes never existed for a tribes or race names. We re all connected to the same humans with different histories. The good and bad people of the planet is what people should be worried about.

When did ‘Africa’ start being called Africa? What is the difference between Africans and negroes? was it Africans for sale or negroes for sale during the Atlantic and sub-Saharan slave trades the took place at the same time? Wake up people. The red men have us confounded. They control the narrative so push forward lies to keep us from discovering that they are the base peoples of the earth. To originate and to descend from somewhere are two different things. The truth is out here now. Don’t believe the hype……

most of the comments have nothing to do with the near extinction of Taino people and possible revival of survivors. had hoped to learn about that.

People are confused these days, I know when I say people I mean melinated people worldwide. Eurocentric education, history and bigotry have taught us that black means what they call “negroid” or Bantu with features like flat broad noses, thick tight curls (nappy hair) and full lips, but this is not the full description of black people in Africa, Australia ,the Americas or the world over. This is how today you confuse African and indigenous studies across the world. There are many phenotypes in Africa and the world over in Southern Africa you have the Saan who very much resemble what anthropologusts call Mongloids and in my opinion are the seed tribe that peopled the Orient, in the West and Center of Africa we have the traditional Bantu “negroid” (for lack of a better term) the East or Horn of Africa has Somolian, Ethiopian types (this region is where the Pharonic bloodline in Egypt began which explains the hair texture and facial features of pre ptolomeic mummies) in Australia we have black people with thin curly hair similar to that of the Ethiopians and other horn people’s. These are but few examples of the diversity in black people that without European add mixture or influence develop traits not stereotypical “negroid” yet black indegenous none the least. In the case of the Solomon Island people we have not only thin haired but blonde thin haired and blue eyed black people with zero European add mixture who in isolation developed these trades. Also in the Andaman islands or Sentinel Islands of India you have isolated tribes of people who have zero contact with the outside world for tens of thousands of years and maintain their “negroid” look since African migration or since they spring from the ground so to speak. I say this to say that black does not mean traditional negroid and this bigoted thinking inhibits the education of the world and nurtures racial divisions that did not exist in a pre European dominated world. Black people civilized, peopled, educated and recorded for posterity the world. European people do the opposite for selfish purpose and have in the last 500 years destroyed the world with pollution, violence, disease and systems like white supremacy which is only and idea with no fact to support it. Not genetically, biologically or scientifically as the world was developed at the time of their coming to power. That said back to the topic at hand black people have an erased history, stolen technologies, eradicated languages and so on under this email entries biased world we live in but fact is we are here in all our types, shapes and sizes all over this planet and wherever a European goes and “discovers” he finds either black people or traces of black people and it was frustrating to him so he implanted all these separatist ideas in the minds of people. The world in black and will one day return to black because white has proven very irresponsible, disrespectful and ignorant when it comes to preserving the world and caring for it’s people. Then indegenous of any land are always black skinned just look at genetic studies and photos of even the “mongloid” natives whose shiny black skin is obvious even in a black and white photo. Thanks

Nobody really knows what actually took place originally ,history is still part story everyone is connected we are all one……….

S. N. B actually yes, we know where they took place originally, im from Puerto Rico and in our history class they teach us where they took place and yes, they say from other places but is totally in Puerto Rico. Also, you can search in Google Maps: Puerto Rico, Humacao. Humacao is the name of the leader of the Tainos and also is the name of the town where I was used to live

As I understand it Black is a political term used for all people who are non white. The importance of this becomes clear when, in late 60s and 70s we looked at the economic imbalances in a world where 80% of the worlds wealth was in the hands of 20% of the world’s population who are “white”. I am a classified as “mixed race” and a very fair skinned woman proud to call myself black…Say it loud… my five children and 13 grandchildren also know who they are. I just found out today that my grandmother was from the Taino tribe…doing this research I am amazed to come across this dialogue. I remember when I was younger, in the UK, getting my hair pulled in a club and always being made to feel bad for my colour. Rejected by white people I understand but black people rejecting their own???? Come on!!! we were enslaved and forced to breed then made to feel bad about ourselves and ill treat each other. Slavery “ended” but mindsets were never addressed …I remember when the original Roots came out…Fiddler said “no more Kunte Kinte.” …..” guinea man …you got to forget all that you american now” . Despite all recorded above we remain human and mostly kind and fun loving and civilised. We all make mistakes…wrong choices however, I choose to love… unconditionally…as does our Creator. Love conquers all. Love wins. Love turns things around. We need to love ourselves and each other coz we all came from the same place. Peace x

while this conversation is kept at the end of the day it dosent even matter, but I get it, we all want to know what the origins of our ethnicity, and with that being said, I’ve never seen, saw, a white human being never, ever! some pale people, yes! white people no! everybody”s some kinda color, people! look! not about where you came from, but where will one spend eternity, yes! we’re all a creation of the DIVINE CREATOR! but we’re NOT! his CHILDREN! SO! at the end of the last breath each and everyone of us takes! take note! IT WOULD BEHOOV US TO BE BORN AGAIN!!!! in the RUACH! (SPRIT) become DAUGHTER’S and SON’S and STOP!! DEBATING and start LOVING EACH OTHER AGAINST SUCH THERE IS NO LAW!! SHALOM!!

What methods were usto enslaved the Tainos

The indigenous people of the Caribbean and Americas came from Asia, over time these people developed tanned skin due to the tropical climate. And fyi the word Africa doesn’t mean black ,it comes from the phoenian language meaning land without snow.

Really calling them black huh? That’s really annoying and it brother me. I’m Indian and one day someone called me black. The taino shoulden;t be CLASSIFIED as BLACK!

The truth is coming out about the history of the America…. From the north south central and adjoining island… Who where the real holder of the ancient Olmec….. And for sure are school is not teaching us any of our history and fore sure you cant let no one else teach us and our children because that’s where the dumbing down comes in. And the human race is at war with mankind to difrance species…. One is all colored and the other is albino…. From another tribe from Africa. Africans have nothing to do with the color aboriginal off America that was a trick done to the people of the most high

Human skin color ranges in variety from the darkest brown to the lightest hues. An individual’s skin pigmentation is the result of genetics, being the product of both of the individual’s biological parents’ genetic makeup, and exposure to sun. In evolution, skin pigmentation in human beings evolved by a process of natural selection primarily to regulate the amount of ultraviolet radiation penetrating the skin, controlling its biochemical effects.[1]

A long way, you can finish step by step, and then you can’t reach without a foot

My friend is Taino , looks exactly like the paintings of the Taino of Columbus time, is a light reddish brown colour and has no specifically African genes.

Alright , there is absolutely no reason why the Taino, Olmec, Chumash, Cherokee, Choctaw, Yamasee, Washitaw, and ALL other Native American, Indigenous, Aboriginal people are being classified as Black African people, by African American descendants of the African slaves!! Africans had nothing to do with the America’s or had any part in the high civilizations of the Olmec, or Mound Builders, or any Native American culture! Africa had no capabilities to cross the ocean . And didn’t even have high civilizations like those in the Americas. DNA studies of the whole genome have shown that all ancient remains tested are closely related or ancestral to all modern Native Americans, and skull shape is useless when trying to tie ancient populations by skull morphology only. Look at Kennewick Man, Naia, Luzia, Spirit Cave Man, Lovelock Skulls, Lago Santo Skulls. These ancient remains were claimed to be Ainu, European, African, Australian Aborigines, Melanesian , and Polynesian by Skull morphology only. Well DNA studies if the whole genome proves that only the direct ancestors of the modern Native Americans, populated the Americas, any one else is just a delusional fantasy. African Americans have African and European descended DNA, that only showed up here in their genomes during the same time time period. Between 400-100 years ago. Both White and Black Americans have minuscule Native American admixture, and it was only one NA ancestor that shows up in their family tree in the 1600s. Other than that AAs had a few generational European ancestors that showed up in their tree from1600’s-1900’s. Most Black African Americans have on average 25% European autosomal DNA. Both Black and White Americans are desperate for deep ties to the Americas, that they don’t have, along with a real ethnic American identity and heritage!! At this point in time both European and African Americans are both In a desperate race to self-Indigenize themselves, and to fabricate a pseudo-historical history for their selves, when in reality they are both Colonial Settlers who are immigrant foreigners on Indigenous lands!!

There are different shades of Taino, IMO, the Caribbean indigenous have the myelinated skin and those of similar latitudes due to their geographical positioning around the equator not all Arawak people have a wheatish complexion. (like those in Puerto Rico).
On the other hand the Puerto Ricans are the ‘direct’ living descendants of the Arawak Taino. The darker shades of taino were not completely exterminated by the Spanish, as the Brits intervened 1660 and captured Jamaica and other places. A majority of them fell victim to the ‘one drop rule’ which it wasn’t called in those days but widely viewed as accurate.
The modern day Carib taino ‘may’ have some West African genes and European. Similar to that of ‘white’ Caucasian having Indo-Aryan origin, but believe me black people will make it clear to you, that you are ‘not black’. With this ancestry to ‘white’ you are ‘black’ to ‘black’ you are called ‘coolie’ in the West Indies, which is considered a defect by black Caribbean’s and black Africans. where do you fit in, i’d say indigenous because native Caribbean and a bit of indigenous African (arrival by any means: slavery, plate tectonics, Bering strait). You can’t be African if some of your heritage goes back millennia in the Americas. Not Indian because that’s the term for people from the Country of India.

The site is entitled, Taino: Indigenous Caribbean The Taíno were an Arawak people who were the indigenous people of the Caribbean and Florida. At the time of European contact in the late 15th century, they were the principal inhabitants of most of Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola (the Dominican Republic and Haiti), and Puerto Rico.!
Both of my parents , grandparents were from Puerto Rico. I am a 1st Generation Puerto Rican, born/raised in the State of NJ. Though I learned the history of Amerikkka ; Know that many of our Islands were slaughtered, physically abused by the British , French & Spain. That being said , the History of my Taino/Arawak lineage was embedded within me as a youth. I fathom that many did not have that source of learning. And a vast amount of tribes were lost, stolen from our true land and given an identity to oppress, and control the masses. Though times have changed and information is out there, in more ways than one . My Bro’s and Sis’s to find oneself, That is KEY!!! Amerikkka uses its system of Politics, Education, and Religion to plant the seed of Fear, and Uncertainty and Indefiniteness in the Minds of Our People. These negative states of mind cause our brothers, sisters to form the habit of drifting. That habit crystallizes into permanency through the law of hypnotic rhythm; then the victim is helpless to help themself. A human being,alone ,has the power to establish our own rhythm of thought providing one exercises this privilege before hypnotic rhythm has forced upon one the influences of our environment.
Every home ,every place of business, every town, and village and every street and community center has its own definite, discernible rhythm. If you wish to know what a difference there is in the rhythm of streets, take a walk up Fifth Avenue, in New York, and then down a street in the slums! All forms of rhythm become permanent with time. Understand? “Fear is the tool of a man-made devil. Self-confident faith in one’s self is both the man-made weapon which defeats this devil and man-made tool which builds a triumphant life. And it is more than that. It is a link to the irresistible forces of the universe which stand behind a man who does not deem in failure and defeat as being anything but temporary experiences “. We are all humans beings . Brothers and Sisters on this Earth filled with energy and matter. And until our destiny is fulfilled. We are all here and must learn to co exist with eachother, whether Bronze ,Brown, Dark, Red, Yellow, Light. Have to break the chains of ignorance and that keeps us caught in the web of who is from where,what, how. We come from all diversified tribes. Accept that roots go back much further than meets the eye and Proper Education Always Corrects Error! My People

NKent805 I understand your overall message and I agree that the indigenous Americans shouldn’t be classified as Black/African American, however, your statement, “Africa had no capabilities to cross the ocean . And didn’t even have high civilizations like those in the Americas,” is absolutely false. Africa held the first high functioning civilization in the world, Ancient Kemet/Egypt. The Africans were the ones who taught Europeans proper hygiene, mathematics, science, cosmology, and last but not least, how to navigate their way across the Atlantic ocean. Africans were right there on the boat leading Columbus as sailors, not as slaves. Africans had civilization way before anyone else- after all, they are the original humans, and thus in a way they have something to do with every culture because everyone branched out from Africa. Africans birthed the entire world. Very ignorant statement that you made.

Until this history is taught in Schools, Colleges and University Classrooms it will never be taught to families, babies, children and Adults but first the Teachers and Scholars have to share the history of Race, Ethnicity with Teacher Educators in all schools.

Dr. Andrew Jackson, Sr.
460 Douglas Drive
State College, Pennsylvania 16803
PhD in Multicultural Education
Penn State University
Independent Scholar
Interestedn in Race, Ethnicity , Cultures and Diversity Inclusion in Schools
Author: James A. Banks and the Evolution of Multicultural Education: Implications for Teacher Educators and Curriculum Development, Wheatmark Press, 2007, Tucson, Arizona

The Tainos are not extinct in Jamaica.

My husbands grandmother had photos of his great great grandfather who was Taino and he is dark as coal. It is NOT a bad thing to be associated with dark skin. Stockholm syndrome has been passed down for generation after generation. It IS true that people from the land that is NOW called Africa were on this side of the world prior to slavery. Historians and Archeologists have found ancient AFRICAN artifacts in many parts of the U.S, the Caribbean, AND South America that pre-date Columbus. How the hell you think it got here?!!! Africa and African civilization is NOT and was NOT as primitive as the the colonizers have led yall to believe. And instead of running with what you were told..how about actually research EGYPT/Kemet/Cush…and just as an FYI…EGYPT is in AFRICA. ALSO..whether you believe in Science or the Bible…both confirm that man began in Africa. Race is NOT from the creator. Race is a man made construct that yall just refuse to let go. The bible speaks about how the ONLY WAY people were able to tell who was from where, was by how they dressed and who they worshipped…..because they were ALL similar skin tones. Geographical location, migration, and evolution changed that. It’s sad that people want acceptance from the so called supreme race so bad….that they will denounce ancestry and fight tooth and nail to disassociate themselves. Many Mexicans and Latinos whitewashed their own in order to assimilate.

whats the status of the taino in jamaica today? you only ever hear about black jamaicans

We are ALL mixed.

Christopher Columbus seems like he was hanging out with a couple of groups of European and Spain all together that’s what it sounds like. But remember he was very very interested in Haiti French speaking people. And if Taino was fleeting. From Spain. Because they were killing them. They would not run to a territory that supposed to be there someone Spain there too. And in Puerto Rico there were tainos so many of them will be fleeting that may be running to Haiti why because they French speaking people and there were tainos living there. Now that sounds more like a connections. because you know and Africans and Taino in Puerto Rico tainos were running away from anything that was Spain or Spanish. I agree with LA navidad. Because that’s where Christopher Columbus and for a purpose I think he was looking for more slaves and capture Taino to help them. Haiti is the original Espanola. Even if the Santa Maria was destroy the ship maybe they know they was going to capture them take them. But I will stick to Haiti those are the original one. I think that’s real history right there. Even if they say later on he started walking first down they still bumping into Spanish people. And I’m pretty sure that was not their intention to begin with.

It’s important that you and many writers state that the Arawak Taino people are still here and alive. The severity of this awareness is so crucial, because by using past tense verbiage
this continues the vanishing native narrative. In which, ultimately removes us indigenous people of the Caribbean islands into non existence, people of the “past”. This Narrative perpetuates our subjugation and removes us from the settler’s conscious. Making it easier to steal and limit resources to the natives that have been on this land for thousands of years. Thank you and have a great day!

Quick question, the article mentions that a group of Taino people ‘accompanied’ Columbus back to Spain. Did they go with him consensually?

Mr. Abdul you need to do a little more research about the Tainos life in the Caribbean of Haiti and why they fled Haiti to Puerto Rico. If you are writing about them and the Arawak the you also need to talk about the Kingdom of Haiti . No other Caribbean Island has done what Haiti did for most prominent countries in the world.
You know the Arawaks and the Indians were already in Haiti when Christopher Columbus claimed he discover the new world. I see your dismissal or your lack of research on Haiti is done by design unless you openly want to show bias on your research. Let me share with you the line up of the Grande Antilles. Of the Caribbean Island.
1. Cuba
2. Haiti
3. Jamaica and Puerto Rico.
Let save the rest for later…….

Hopefully someone will comment on my post.

Are you familiar with Hollywood actress and model Patricia Velazquez (venezuelan-Spanish actress), well, she is Arawac indian from Venezuela (native Venezuelan), the classic Arawac indian. Well, Tainos and all Caribbean natives that Columbus found were classically like Patricia Velazquez. Very tall people with pronounced cheekbones and silky black hair, a very beautiful race. Some historians described the Tainos shorter than the Spaniards, but I think that is a mistake, since Arawacs were very tall. However, Caribs were taller and intermarried with Taino women for centuries before Columbus arrived. Now, the Spaniards height at that time were an average of 5.2 to 5.3 ft. tall. Arawacs are described as been about 5.6 ft (I think they were taller than that), but in comparison they were tall than Spaniards.

Wow….long deliberations on history. By the way am an African, born and bred from west Africa, Ghana. And I am a very proud daughter of africa.

All I can say is that before slavery or whatever human trading that happened those centuries, there were small native living all over the world in their own small space be it light skin or dark skin. We all God creation. But slavery brought lots of transporting of people from one end to the other end of the world, off springs were produced through rape and ownership of slaves etc. Orgins,Cultures , languages and history of people were all distorted. Whoever will say slavery did not happen is really lost. Come to Ghana and see those castles, fortress built by the Dutch, Portuguese, Spanish for these human trading. Did this fortress just appeared where they are? Hell No. If you never seen any of these and experienced that inner feeling of bonding with your ancestral spirit you will not know what you talking about. These dungeons are still fill with the smell and spirits of our ancestors in chains being shipped the the Americas or wherever their destiny took them to. Yes, some died on their way through these long and dangerous waters. The end results are what we have today mix with all other people who were robbed off ther orgin and culture. Inter marriages, has brought about all these shaded of skin color etc. Luckily DNA can help some to trace back to where they came from. Being light skinned, dark skinned. Copper skinned does not matter. Just find your peace to where you belong and be glad you home period.

History handed over from all these centuries will obviously be distorted and misinformative. But let your ancestral spirits guide you back home. And if ever you have the opportunity go visit any of these African countries. Ghana has had its share of slavery and the evidence and legacy is still lingering on till today. Cape coast one of the coastal places with so many of these castles and fortress still had mix colored people , with their history way back from slavery, having Dutch fathers, Portuguese, british and Spaniards…..who knows what happened back then. Young slave virgins were taking by these slave masters every nite and when they get pregnant they were set free to go, their fate was in their own hands. It was like a game of pleasure. Hmm….any way..we all.come from somewhere and taking unwillingly some where unknown but remember nature has it’s own way to draw you closer home if you pray and search your inner soul and ask for it.

We all one , it does not matter your skin color . Am a proud daughter of africa..but glad I was not born our of slavery…… thks for reading

Post a comment