Africa before Transatlantic Enslavement

The Transatlantic Slave trade not only distorted Africa’s economic development it also distorted views of the history and importance of the African continent itself. It is only in the last fifty years that it has been possible to redress this distortion and to begin to re-establish Africa’s rightful place in world history.

The African continent is now recognised as the birthplace of humanity and the cradle of civilization. We still marvel at the great achievements of Kemet, or Ancient Egypt, for example, one of the most notable of the early African civilizations, which first developed in the Nile valley over 5000 years ago.

However, even before the rise of Kemet it seems likely that an even more ancient kingdom, known as Ta Seti, existed in what is today Nubia in Sudan. This may well have been the earliest state to exist anywhere in the world. Africa can therefore be credited not only with giving rise to the many scientific developments associated with Egypt, engineering, mathematics, architecture, medicine etc but also with important early political developments such as state formation and monarchy. This demonstrates that economic and political development, as well as scientific development was, during this early period, perhaps more advanced in Africa than in other continents.

The African continent continued on its own path of development, without significant external intervention until the fifteenth century of our era. Some of the world’s other great civilisations, such as Kush, Axum, Mali, and Great Zimbabwe, flourished in Africa in the years before 1500. In this early period Africans participated in extensive international trading networks and in trans-oceanic travel. Certainly some African states had established important trading relations with India, China and other parts of Asia long before these were disrupted by European intervention.

A North African conquest of the Iberian peninsular began in the 8th century and led to the occupation of much of Spain and Portugal for several centuries. This Muslim invasion re-introduced much of the knowledge of the ancient world to Europe and linked it much more closely with North and West Africa. It was gold from the great empires of West Africa, such as Ghana, Mali and Songhay, which provided the means for the economic take off of Europe in the 13th and 14th centuries and aroused the interest of Europeans in western Africa. Indeed it was the wealth of West Africa, especially as a source of gold, that encouraged the voyages of the early European explorers.

By the 15th century the African continent was already one of great of diversity. The existence of great kingdoms and empires, such as Mali in the west and Ethiopia in the east were in many ways exceptional rather than typical. In many part of the continent no major centralised states existed and many people lived in societies where there were no great divisions of wealth and power. In such societies there were generally more democratic systems of government by councils of elders and other kinship and age based institutions. As a consequence there was also a diversity of religious and philosophical beliefs. In many areas these beliefs remained traditional and stressed the importance of communing with common ancestors. The Ethiopian kingdom was unusual because the Orthodox Christian church, which was of ancient origin in that region, had increasingly important state functions. In Mali, and in some other areas of western and eastern Africa, as well as in throughout North Africa, Islam had already begun to play a significant role before 1500. Most importantly African societies were following their own patterns of development before the onset of European intervention.

Negative views

In the 18th century, racist views of Africa were most famously expressed by Scottish philosopher David Hume: ‘I am apt to suspect the Negroes to be naturally inferior to the Whites. There scarcely ever was a civilised nation of that complexion, nor even any individual, eminent either in action or in speculation. No ingenious manufacture among them, no arts, no sciences.’

Whilst some changed slightly over time, there were still some who continued to hold these derogatory views. In the 19th century, the German philosopher Hegel simply declared: ‘Africa is no historical part of the world.’ Later, Hugh Trevor-Roper, Regius Professor of History at Oxford University, expressed openly the racist view that Africa has no history, as recently as 1963.

Early achievements

We now know that, far from Africa having no history, it is almost certain that human history actually began there. All the earliest evidence of human existence and of our immediate hominid ancestors has been found in Africa. The latest scientific research points to the fact that all human beings are likely to have African ancestors.

Africa was not just the birthplace of humanity but also the cradle of early civilisations that made an immense contribution to the world and are still marvelled at today. The most notable example is Kemet – the original name of ancient Egypt – which first developed in the Nile valley more than 5,000 years ago and was one of the first monarchies.

However, even before the rise of Egypt, an even earlier kingdom was founded in Nubia, in what is present-day Sudan. Ta Seti is thought to be one of the earliest states in history, the existence of which demonstrates that, thousands of years ago, Africans were developing some of the most advanced political systems anywhere in the world.

Egypt

Kemet, more commonly referred to as the Egypt of the pharaohs, is best known for its great monuments and feats of architecture and engineering, such as the planning and construction of the pyramids, but it also made great advances in many other fields.

The Egyptians produced early types of paper, devised a written script and developed a calendar. They made important contributions in various branches of mathematics, such as geometry and algebra, and it seems likely that they understood and perhaps invented the use of zero. They also made important contributions to mechanics, philosophy and agriculture, especially irrigation.

In medicine, the Egyptians understood the body’s dependence on the brain more than 1,000 years before the Greek scholars came up with the same idea. Some historians now believe that Egypt had an important influence on ancient Greece, pointing to the fact that Greek scholars such as Pythagoras and Archimedes studied there and that the work of Aristotle and Plato was largely based on earlier Egyptian scholarship. For example, what is commonly known as Pythagoras’ theorem was well known to the ancient Egyptians hundreds of years before Pythagoras’ birth.

The rise of Islam

The continent progressed on its own path of development without major external intervention apart from the Arab invasions of North Africa that began after the rise of Islam in the mid-7th century. Those invasions and the introduction of Islam served to integrate North Africa, as well as parts of East and West Africa, more fully into the Muslim-dominated trading system of that period and generally enhanced the local, regional and international trading networks that were already developing throughout the continent.

Although sometimes spread by military means, Islam’s expansion was often facilitated by trade and the desire of African rulers to utilise Islamic political and economic institutions. The Arabic language also provided a script that assisted the development of literacy, book-based learning and record-keeping.

The empire of Songhay – which stretched from modern-day Mali to Sudan –was known for, among other things, the famous Islamic university of Sankoré based in Timbuktu, which was established in the 14th century. The works of the Greek philosopher Aristotle were studied there, as well as subjects such as law, various branches of philosophy, dialectics, grammar, rhetoric and astronomy. In the 16th century, one of its most famous scholars, Ahmed Baba (1564–1627), is said to have written more than 40 major books on such subjects as astronomy, history and theology and had a private library that held over 1,500 volumes.

One of the first reports of Timbuktu to reach Europe was by the North African diplomat and author Leo Africanus. In his book Description of Africa, published in 1550, he says of the town: ‘There you will find many judges, professors and devout men, all handsomely maintained by the king, who holds scholars in much honour. There, too, they sell many handwritten North African books, and more profit is to be made there from the sale of books than from any other branch of trade.’

The North African, or Moorish, invasion of the Iberian peninsula and the founding of the state of Córdoba in the 8th century had begun the reintroduction of much of the learning of the ancient world to Europe through translations into Arabic of works in medicine, chemistry, astronomy, mathematics and philosophy, as well as through the various contributions made by Islamic scholars. Arabic numerals based on those used in India were also transplanted, which helped to simplify mathematical calculations.

This knowledge, brought to Europe mainly by the Moors, helped to create the conditions for the Renaissance and the eventual expansion of Europe overseas in the 15th century.

Slavery in Africa

Between the 7th and 15th centuries, the external Muslim trading demand for African goods also included a demand for captives.

Forms of slavery have existed on all continents at different times in history – for instance, as a means of exploiting those captured in war – especially where there were labour shortages and an abundance of land. Slavery was certainly present in some African societies before the rise of Islam. In ancient Kemet, for example, there are descriptions of European slaves being branded. Later, in other African societies, especially those that were powerful states, enslaved or unfree people could be found, although generally their status was little different from that of poor farmers. It may indeed have been similar to that of the serfs of medieval Europe, who were required to produce an agricultural surplus or perform other duties for a particular ruler.

But when an external demand for enslaved people arose, some African societies could and did supply slaves. There was, for example, an export ‘trade’ in enslaved people, taking them via the Sahara from West to North Africa, following a similar route to other trade goods, such as gold and salt. Enslaved Africans were also forced to go to parts of the Middle East, to India and perhaps even as far as China. The most well-known slave of East African origin is Malik Ambar (1549–1626) who was born in what is now Ethiopia. Enslaved at an early age, he eventually became the regent of the Indian kingdom of Ahmednagar, famous for his military campaigns against the Mughals.

The development of states in Africa, increased the levels of inequality – between men and women, rich and poor, free and servile. In fact, inequality and economic exploitation were particularly prevalent in some of the most powerful and developed states, such as the Ethiopian kingdom. Indeed, historians generally consider Ethiopia to be a feudal society with many features similar to those of feudalism in Europe – that is, economic and political power was based on land ownership and the exploitation of those who were forced to work on that land.

Trading systems and gold

nn18213 Before 1600, a massive regional and international trading system stretched from the coast of West Africa, across the Sahara to North Africa and beyond. It was sustained by the mining of gold in West Africa, as well as the production of many other goods there. For many centuries, it was dominated by powerful empires such as Ghana, Mali and Songhay, which often controlled both gold production and the major trading towns on the southern fringes of the Sahara.

A 9th-century historian wrote: ‘The king of Ghana is a great king. In his territory are mines of gold.’ When al-Bakri, the famous historian of Muslim Spain, wrote about Ghana in the 11th century, he reported that its king ‘rules an enormous kingdom and has great power’. He was also said to have an army of 200,000 men and to rule over an extremely wealthy trading empire.

In the 14th century, the West African empire of Mali, which was larger than western Europe, was reputed to be one of the biggest, richest and most powerful states in the world. The Moroccan traveller Mohammed Ibn Batuta, when giving his very favourable impressions of this empire, reported that he had found ‘complete and general safety’ there. When the famous emperor of Mali, Mansa Musa, visited Cairo in 1324, it was said that he brought so much gold with him that its price fell dramatically and had not recovered its value even 12 years later.

It was gold from these great empires of West Africa that prompted the early Portuguese voyages of exploration.

Traditional societies

In the centuries before 1500, some of the world’s other great civilisations, such as Kush (in present-day Sudan), Axum (in present-day Ethiopia) and Great Zimbabwe, flourished in Africa.

However, although the history of the continent before the transatlantic slave trade is often viewed as one of great empires and kingdoms, many of its inhabitants lived in societies with no great state apparatus. They were often governed by councils of elders or by other kinship- or age-based institutions. Religious and philosophical beliefs concentrated on maintaining communication with ancestors who could intercede with gods on behalf of the living and ensure the smooth functioning of society. (The Ethiopian kingdom was unusual because there the orthodox Christian Church, which was of ancient origin, performed increasingly important state functions.)

Many of these societies were small scale, occupied with farming, herding and producing enough from agriculture to survive and exchange in local markets. They could also be part of larger empires and, as such, were expected to produce a surplus or perform other duties for an overlord. In short, while these societies varied greatly and were governed in different ways, they were all developing according to their own internal dynamics.

The Igbo people, who still live in Nigeria, are an example of a society that was not part of a centralised state. They ruled themselves in village communities that, at different times, used slightly different political systems. As in many other African societies that used similar methods, everyone was taught rules and responsibilities according to age and groupings – men or women together in age sets – that cut across family or village loyalty. Sometimes the extended family was responsible for organising and training people and for liaising with other similar extended family groups, through councils of elders or elected chiefs. Therefore relationships based on age and kinship were often very important.

Even societies that had kings and more centralised political structures also used these other political institutions and ways of organising people. What is important about them is that they involved many people in decision-making and, in this respect, were African forms of participatory democracy. Religious ideas generally supported and underpinned these systems of government, most importantly giving people their own specific ways of understanding the world and the rules of their own society.

On the eve of the transatlantic slave trade

In most parts of Africa before 1500, societies had become highly developed in terms of their own histories. They often had complex systems of participatory government, or were established powerful states that covered large territories and had extensive regional and international links.

Many of these societies had solved difficult agricultural problems and had come up with advanced techniques of production of food and other crops and were engaged in local, regional or even international trading networks. Some peoples were skilled miners and metallurgists, others great artists in wood, stone and other materials. Many of the societies had also amassed a great stock of scientific and other knowledge, some of it stored in libraries such as those of Timbuktu, but some passed down orally from generation to generation.

There was great diversity across the continent and therefore societies at different stages and levels of development. Most importantly, Africans had established their own economic and political systems, their own cultures, technologies and philosophies that had enabled them to make spectacular advances and important contributions to human knowledge.

The significance of the transatlantic slave trade is not just that it led to the loss of millions of lives and the departure of millions of those who could have contributed to Africa’s future, although depopulation did have a great impact. But just as devastating was the fact that African societies were disrupted by the trade and increasingly unable to follow an independent path of development. Colonial rule and its modern legacy have been a continuation of this disruption.

The devastation of Africa through transatlantic slavery was accompanied by the ignorance of some historians and philosophers to negate its entire history. These ideas and philosophies suggested, that among other things, Africans had never developed any institutions or cultures, nor anything else of any worth and that future advances could only take place under the direction of Europeans or European institutions.

Comments

This is full of unhelpful misinformation!
We must stop misleading our children with falsehood and incitement to hatred in the name of history.
The aim of this trash is to fit into the narrative that the Whites have done Blacks wrong and very strangely, that Islam and Arabism have done us well or not so bad!!


    Hi Ezhi, Sorry you don’t like the article, would you like to put your opinion across in an article?


I agree with Ezhi, This article is dreadfully biased – it is quite sickening how the rhetoric puts this emphasis on this narrative of Europeans (In general) as being the wrong doers to Africans (It’s a very simplified, niave, dangerous and lazy analysis of history and it’s manipulative and divisive and self serving in nature;) You need to read some of Thomas Sowell’s work; and also look at Michael Tsarions work on those (very small in number)particular families and elites that orchestrated these state sanctioned operations and benefited from them. Also it may be worth looking at the book ‘White Slavery 101’ and getting acquainted with the rawness of life for 99% of medieval Europeans during these times; before encouraging this gross and foul rhetoric.

Brushing over Arabic invasions as if it was all flowers and economic prosperity, is equally disgusting and reaks of the work of a wet behind the ears social justice warrior. Nothing could be further from the truth. Why not go into some detail about the brutal nature of the Sub-saharan slave trade. Black slaves are still castrated today in Saudi Arabia.


    Hello Pepe and by extension, Ezhi.
    Just letting you know that your comments and critiques have not fallen on deaf ears.
    We have been working on several pieces regarding Middle Eastern, Far Eastern and Oceanic involement in Africa for some time. However, as we focus on Black History in the UK and because the UK falls within a European sphere of influence, research on European involvement in Africa was our primary source of information as it is a) easier to get a hold of and b) has a greater number of sources that have been verified.
    At present, the largest issue we have on talking about the influence of Middle Eastern countries in Africa is that we are nowhere near where the information is kept. Secondly,people are largely unwilling to talk to us due to time constraints or their own views which deem it an issue not worth their time.

    In conclusion, this article was planned to be the first of many, with this one in particular looking to be constantly updated as information came to us.

    Nonetheless, I’m grateful for your comments as they give us some indication on where to look next to improve this website.


Interesting.


This is a very lazy historical analysis. It claims to be countering Eurocentricism, but begins with the European assumption that Africa is a homogenous block. Nobody disputes that Egypt is the cradle of much of modern civilisation. But what did San bushmen living in the Kalahari have to do with Egypt? The Zulus had no mathematics or written word and yet you speak of them all as “African”, as though they share a common history, and as if the Zulus can claim the achievements of the Egyptians as their own.

The above article is exactly the kind of history you get when Black Europeans write history with a specific identity political agenda in mind. Very disappointing, and very divisive and dishonest.


I note with interest that I made a comment, fully in line with commentary guidelines, but that it wasn’t published. Presumably because it presented a slightly alternative view point on what this site pushes.Very dissapointing. So much this being a discussion forum open to a variety of view points.


    Admittedly, our spam check filter is a computer and not a human, so even if you can submit it, it won’t get through to moderation.
    In some cases, we can approve a comment and the spam filter then removes it at a later date.

    Alternatively, it does allow some spam to filter through. This is something we are working on.


The above commenters are you black? Or from an Islamic culture. If you are from an Islamic background, I suggest you read books as How Europe Underdeveloped Africa, They Came Before Columbus, The Great Cosmic Mother: Rediscovering Religion. Etc

I would suggest others pick up these books too.


I am absolutely astonished by Islamophobic comments on this site. The majority of Africans taken over to the Americas were Muslims. The Arabs did not copy the Indian numeral system. In fact, it was the Arab traders (Muslims) who introduced the Arabic numeral system to the the present day Indian sub-continent.


Note – worthy comment
This is a very lazy historical analysis. It claims to be countering Eurocentricism, but begins with the European assumption that Africa is a homogenous block. Nobody disputes that Egypt is the cradle of much of modern civilisation. But what did San bushmen living in the Kalahari have to do with Egypt? The Zulus had no mathematics or written word and yet you speak of them all as “African”, as though they share a common history, and as if the Zulus can claim the achievements of the Egyptians as their own.

The above article is exactly the kind of history you get when Black Europeans write history with a specific identity political agenda in mind. Very disappointing, and very divisive and dishonest.

Personal Option
I think the person is confusing Ethnicity with Race. Race is the physical group you are assigned to, Ethnicity is the cultural subgroup. I am black, I take the history of all my people (from the Igbo of Nigeria, to the Akan of Ghana) but my Ethnicity is Jamaican which is another identity in itself. I am a decent of the Ashanti Empire (which was many Black ethnicities).


YOu missed out a CRUCIAL point, the Transatlantic Trade was started by Mystery Babylon mother of all harlots and abominations of the Earth ,,aka the roman catholic church – THAT IS WHAT THE BIBLE CALLS HER Rev 17 & 18 she is not of Christ. Pope Nicolas 5 issued a DUM DIVERSAS papal bull curse bewitchments call it whatever you want. It sought to place blacks in eternal servitude not only in the Slave trade but in blotting out any positive history before the slave trade so that blacks and whites only think of Black history as slaves..when that is not the case. We see that Blacks were in Henry 7th,8th and Elizabeth 1st England and they were not slaves but ordinary people who worked and earned salaries ….Even the bible is whitewashed to hide the identities of black evangelists that walked with Christ and went on to establish the New Testament Church we only hear on line on Simeon the Niger ( Acts 13:1) ..even now they would like us to believe that Niger is North African (Arab) and not negroid.. ( Er Niger, & Nigeria!!)

God has Called His people out of Mystery Babylon mother of all harlots Rev 18 :4 this applies to black people who are God’s people if we can get away from the pagan imagery that the popes have placed in many s minds.

This October also celebrates the 500th anniversary of the Reformation in which Martin Luther exposed the catholic church for who she is and the office of the popes as that of the Antichrist. We thank God for the Calling out of Gods people black and white, ( white christians were taking themselves to hell by listening to her papal bull to enslave and deny rights when Jesus said we should Love our neighbours and give all due rights.)


Great Article.

Truth be told aandd expressed without pretty.


Of course white people have hijacked the comments to discredit black history truths because don’t align with the “white savior” illusion they’ve created for themselves over the years. I sure hope that the writer of this article changes nothing to appease them. The truth of the matter is that prior to white people invading Africa as they have everywhere else, the systems in play there were working well for blacks. White people’s greed destroyed Africa and America and white supremacy masked the truth of black history for centuries. Now that we are able to read and think freely, they’ve lost their ability to control the narrative and that terrifies them.


Fantastic article!


Love this article don’t worry about the apostes Albinos who don”t like the Article they are nothing but Satans children!


To say this work is lazy would quite frankly only cone from those who disagree with the rise and fall of African lineage people. There is no reason to down play the events.
Saying OH poor white folks weren’t the only ones treating niggers bad. So this article holds no merit. Is absurd. White Supremacy is the absolute worst thing to happen to Hebrew Society.
You also left out. How Europeans stole the Hebrew God.
Also how Leopold II killed 12.5 million African people. Also how African people Birthed Europe centuries before white pale skin people existed


This is a whitewash—or blackish—of history.

‘More than most’ to ‘almost 100%’ of enslavement in Africa was/is Blacks enslaving & selling Blacks. Wars were fought by competing Black African cultures over who can enslave other Black Africans & sell them to Europeans. It was a huge part of various local economies which were disrupted when the USA & Europe abolished slavery. Here let Dr. Gates tell you. It’s already cued up:

https://youtu.be/IKjuu1ZOF-o?t=1m30s

That’s not enough for you? OK, kindly read this article—don’t cherry pick, understand it all—and then you can clearly understand the situation:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slavery_in_Africa

Also Whites stopped slavery, while it remains a cultural constant in Black Africa, and in other parts of the world today. A fact you twice failed to admit. That’s also clearly stated in the link above.

The thing is if you asked any level-headed Black history major, you would know these things. Something tells me, you don’t really want to know the complete facts. Slavery is part of the world’s history, and Black africans played a huge, willing, profitable part in it, even today.

Finally, here’s a gift just for you:
https://www.facebook.com/marchforscienceABQ/photos/a.1244246988999248.1073741828.1237803306310283/1701870996570176/?type=3&theater

Bro, don’t be a racist. Don’t let facts frighten you. Don’t let hate-filled people sway you. We’re all human; warts & all.


The historical facts in this article are not only invalid but also not related to the title. Anyway the first thing you have to correct in this article is that you should have a clear idea about Africa. Egypt is not a black civilization they were and are white, second slaves of New world were from west Africa and the slave trades were created and well organized by Arabs from the 7 century and continued till 1970 by law. Europeans go to Africa and just bought the “product” which black people of concurrent tribes sold them. (there is still a slave trade in Africa today)


Actually I think you will find that the 25th dynasty Egypt was ruled by Nubian people and the common characters that people like to focus on such as Cleopatra came after this dynasty. Great wealth and political stability as well as exceptional feats in architecture were achieved during this dynasty that people want to erase. Why is it so difficult in this day and age to accept that black people made these contributions? There were places such as Timbuktu which had markets for trade and scientists and philosophers exchanged knowledge with foreign travellers. Some of these ignorant comments prove that black history month is essential to educate and restore a sense of pride in a community that is often taught that our history began with slavery.


Poor artical that strangely over looks the black slave trade that preceded the trans atlantic slave trade by nearly 800 years…has lasted now for over 1400 years and continues to this day….ie,..its happening now….and yes i refer the muslim islamic slavery of black people…men women and children….a trade that numbers over 200 million black people who were murdered slaved raped and castrated….can you explain to me why this genocide of black people finds no interest from you…


    We are more than happy to write about this as we were not aware. If you could be please send us some sources to we can commission the article.


I like the attempt to revisit Africa before the transAtlantic Slave Trade which is now a global industry…by Understanding Slavery.

What’s not to like if one has a header about Africa during UK Black History Month and remember not all in Africa are ‘black ‘ although they are Africans too (but not to get political) and not bragg abit?

One following honestly from sea through the Nile all the way to sea beyond the Table Mountain will be reminded of great Kingdoms mentioned by astute scholars from all over the world. That’s fact.

So even if slavery by Islamists, Western Traders & Colonialists and Africans too distorted history, we can pick up from let’s say the Great Zimbabwe Empire and attempt to make her great again….


Black and slavery are presented in such a way as it is a big crime, I do not say that it is correct, but the question arises whether it has ended the slavery or not? If there were no differences between the Black tribes, nobody would have dared to make slaves black. The slaves slammed themselves on themselves, the whole nation for the benefit of some people today


As a white anti-racist, I don’t think pre-colonial slavery in Africa, or the continued worldwide practice of slavery, lets transatlantic slave traders off the hook. The scale of it and the pseudo-scientific racist justification was disgusting, and the effects continue today to blight the lives of Africans living in Europe and the Americas.


It is time to stop the lies and the coverup. You need to stop


One thing is clear. Africa belonged to Africans. It was a developing continent as all others. Continental Slave trade subjugating weaker tribes differed greatly from intercontinental slave trade, i.e., the hunting, trapping, kidnapping, murdering, and inhumane treatment of human beings who were at once stripped of human dignity and all rights. Continental tribes didn’t deny their captees use of their language, their name, identification with their tribe and culture, food, medical treatment. The intent of European slavers was to strip Africa of its wealth, in human costs and its minerals, spices, cloths, and others. Greed and diabolical white supremacy, which is the most prevalent destructive force at work in the world today. White supremacy the and now, the human agenda that can’t be satisfied and knows no boundaries to be accomplished. Africa was the cradle of civilization with science and society that can’t be denied but can be erased as truth by self aggrandizing white people who refuse truth, preferring alternative truths. The world owes Africa and Africans a debt that cannot be repaid. We see it. We know it. We must all embrace humanity, and not diminish others because of “race or ethnicity”. As our existence in the world has demonstrated, genius comes is all skin colors.


Great research. My opinion and my DNA test results aligns well with this article. The negative comments are from many that really can’t comprehend that facts will never change we are one!!! The Africans are one with God & out of Africa came many!!!


As I read this article and some of the stupid biased comments, regarding this article – I wonder if those who are against it has did their own research? What race are they? I agreed that some part of Africa was underdeveloped and native – in reality all countries or race of people were at one time living the same way at one time until they developed. Some developed faster than others.

Native, uneducated, and an undeveloped nation, is all other races and blacks often seen in books and media. People need to understand that the black race just like any other race was at one time powerful in it own way. They developed into a nation that took pride upon themselves and contribute to the land God has provided.

Because of power, greed, and survival tribes did rage war against each other and took their enemies in as prisoners and later traded them to other races. Throughout history we learned there were other races who were slaves (Jews were slave in Egypt ). The Bible speaks about slave and how they ought to be treated. The problem is how slaves were taken away from their land; to a country and were consider not as human but as property with no rights. This is unlike what the Bible tell us about slaves, and how to treat the slave. The way blacks were treated as slave was a serious problem that needed to end. Many So-called Christians who were white were hypocrites themselves, raped the female slaves; brutally beat the male slave, and separated and sold the child from them parents. If the child was female, they would most like be use as the whites child “play toy” and later as the master mistress. Bottom line I like the article and there is truth in it


Actually, contemporary scientific research of palaeoanthropologists is pointing to China/East Asia being the birthplace of humanity and civilisation, not Africa. Furthermore, the slave trade was already flourishing in the continent before the Europeans ever arrived, just look at the Barbary slave trade. What’s more, slaves are embedded in Islamic culture and has been a plague on the region since the 9th century! Europeans exploited an already exploited people on a moveable scale never seen before, but what they did was not unique. My African brothers must know this.


this article is so good and so glad you have mentioned Ethiopia from eastern Africa .this article really helped me on writing my history essay writing assignment


The obsession with ETihopa by black Americans and black people in the West is the most digusting, misinformed and ridiculous thing on the planet. The type of slavery that existed in Ethiopia is NO WAY different from the type of slavery that existed in OTHER AFRICAN COUNTRIES. Ethiopia…a country driven by DIFFERENT CULTURAL VALUES THAN MOST OTHER AFRICAN COUNTRIES…has become a point of demanding why “their” blackness is different and why “black” people have enslaved “black” people. That’s not how it worked!!!!! First of all, was there not an enslavement between Ghanian and Nigerians??? Was there not enslaved with Tanzanians…who also had the same Arab thing hybridization in the ocean parts, where they enslaved Bantus???? WHY FOCUS ON ETHIOPIA??????? WHY ONLY FOCUS ON ETHIOPIA WITHOUT MENTIONING THE OTHER AFRICAN COUNTIRES THAT WERE DOING THE EXACT SAME???? You seem to be another moronic person trying to trash Ethiopians, while giving outlet, opportunities, and all sorts of things to West Africans and other African that did the exact same thing, that claim they are the only and true victim of everything. Ethiopians have been the victim of White supremacy TOO, as well as they are now victim of West Africans that think they can bully East Africans using the platforms that are being given to them. Go to hell. WHITE PEOPLE BANNED SLAVERY FIRST, BECAUSE THEY DID SLAVERY MASSIVELY!!!! THEY DIDN’T WANT ANYMORE AFRICANS COMING TO WHITE NATIONS. Ethiopia on the other hand abandoned it freely, the same time as all other nations around the world from Arabs to Asians. West Africans on the other hand, still practice various forms of slavery today. Good job trashing others.


Read about the slave trade from East Africa by Arab slave traders for centuries of the Zanj to Asia and Arab countries far off as China! These slaves were revolting against their Arab masters in Iraq when they were used on plantations for labour as far back as 869-
883 AD!
Certainly some African states had established important trading relations with India, China and other parts of Asia long before these were disrupted by European intervention.
Makes this paragraph look a bit naive and your perception of your idea of trade!


Many of those criticizing this article do so with the warped view of history that the West wants everyone to accept. They want to blame us (Africans) for our own enslavement and colonization for 250 years in this country and Africa. Africa called Europe in to divide it up and take advantage of the various cultures. Cultures that now want English and French to be there national languages. The indigenous people of America caused their own genocide as well. Europeans had little to do with it. The Europeans just showed up and the indigenous people said ” here take my land and destroy my people.” Europeans do this ignoring where people of African descent are living today. There are people of African descent in America today right now. How did they get here? Who brought them here? We sailed those 15,000 voyages from Africa on the slave ships that we (Africans) must have built on the coasts of Africa? Were Africans equal citizens from day one of setting foot on this land? Who were the people that brought Africans here? They were European aliens that have now disappeared and Africans are loved in every circle. We got lots of non racist European white friends some in our own families. There are no problems for anyone right?. Except those caused by Africans themselves. Africans live in these redlined neighborhoods that are just naturally segregated from whites except when whites want to reclaim and gentrify these prime locations. The wealth gap is not real is it? Africans have a networth of $10,000 and European white have a net worth of 100,000. Why is that ? Does slavery or Jim Crow have anything to do with that? Wow! Wow! These Africans complaining about how they have been treated. We Europeans just did not have anything to do with it. What you see before your eyes is just not true.


I am an African American and have an advanced history decree. I no axes to grind against white people and I do not subscribe to this social justice warrior mess that is destroying our republic. I am writing a history novel about the African American experience in Liberia during the 19th century. I would like to gather a group of interested persons to support this book when it is published. It is very balanced and is based on 80% facts (documents, eye witness accounts). It demonstrates the good and bad of the colonizers (both black and white) as well as the good and bad in African societies. You are interested in discovering more about the truth instead of the mythical “white man all bad, and black man all good,” please email me so that I put you on a list to notify you when the novel comes back.


Interesting article. I hope you do indeed expand on your articles uncovering more black history from beyond what we all think we know. I personally as a white one would like to know more. I am though pretty perplexed at our present time that current blacks still hate whites for slavery committed by people’s long ago. I have never owned a slave of any color. I never will and have never understood a so called human who would enslave another human. I also am perplexed by the racist white people who hate the blacks. They also tho hate any person of color including whites like me who have no problem with black skin brown skin etc. Slavery does indeed still exist. All colors all nations. It is unfortunate though that blacks had such mass multitude all around the world. They are spread around the four corners of the earth. They truly seem to fit the curses of the Israelites of the bible. I as a white person find black history interesting and I hope you all come to know your history.Stop the hate for whites and find out who you are where you came from and how to receive your true inheritance. Blessings.


Everyone’s focusing on [pseudo] history. What about the NOW?


Both Arabs and Europeans have dealt Afrika severe blows thru the trans Saharan and Atlantic slave trades…and it continues till date. But Now that we know that our past was once great…before the distruptions by Arabs & Europeans we should bring that same energy of our ancestors…be it Kemet, Nubia , Ile-ife, Great Zimbabwe. into the present and decolonize our minds….


As a white person, I am embarrassed with the angst of my fellow white skins in this comment section. The vigor in their arguing is appalling!!! I hate that we come to ‘black’ sites to order, correct, demean, and control what is being said, what is not being said and to continue to try to orchestrate HOW it is said. We are a pitifully race of people! White supremacists no let’s be honest racists, plain and simple! Fellow white folks let’s stay off of African American sites and learn to mind our own business, finally. We don’t want them living in our neighborhoods why are we going on their websites…much like gentrification, to reclaim what was, for so long, ours without regard for those who came behind us and made it there own, selfish and egomaniacal. I hate being amongst the white population.
I say, in closing, good for you Africans stolen from Africa learn your history without regard to my ignorant brothers continued attempts to steer you back into the dark! And yes, I believe as @Normajean alluded above, you all are the true Hebrew Isrealites but that truth may never be said until Yahoshua returns for you. God bless you all you are the beginning and the end, the superior race, by far and in ALL ways!


As a white person, I am embarrassed with the angst of my fellow white skins in this comment section and on ‘black’ websites overall. The vigor in their arguing is appalling!!! I hate that we come to ‘black’ sites to order, correct, demean, and control what is being said, what is not being said and to continue to try to orchestrate HOW it is said. We are a pitifully race of people! White supremacists, no let’s be honest racists, plain and simple! Fellow white folks let’s stay off of African American sites and learn to mind our own business, finally. We don’t want them living in our neighborhoods why are we going on their websites…much like gentrification, to reclaim what was, for so long, ours without regard for those who came behind us and made it there own, selfish and egomaniacal. I loathe being amongst the white population.
I say, in closing, good for you Africans stolen from Africa, learn your history without regard to my ignorant brothers continued attempts to steer you back into the dark! And yes, I believe as @Normajean alluded above, you all are the true Hebrew Isrealites but that truth may never be said until Yahoshua returns for you. God bless you all, you are the beginning and the end, the superior race, by far and in ALL ways!


Good information, thank you for researching and writing this. Western history distorts. It is time for the truth to be told. All of the information available on the internet serves as a great resource to the chagrin of the ‘authors’ and keepers of Western history.


There is a comment that credits the ban on slavery to whites but as always neglects the efforts of African abolitionists like the Kru boatmen of Liberia who never engaged in slavery to any degree and supported abolition. Again the absence of African’s resistance to slavery is that African resistance was reported in European sources only when it concerned attacks on slave ships and company barracoons, but acts of resistance also took place far from the coast and thus escaped the slavers’ attention. More importantly, they have often been underestimated and overlooked.

First off slave trade was and is a crime committed by humanity against humanity. And when it comes to the Trans Atlantic slave trade, both Africans and Europeans have a role to play. Hence getting caught up in the need to apportion blame or praise between Africans and Europeans or between one nation or another will defeat the purpose of seeking a holistic view of the past in truth.

To add to that the European role in abolishing the slave trade was motivated both by an evangelical and economic turn of events. The former being a result of an internal conflict between hypocrisy and Christian devoutness of the European. It did put pressure on its government notably the British but in no way should it downplay the coming of the industrial age and its ever-growing need for mostly groundnut and palm oil that eventually justified trading with Africans as more profitable than trading in Africans. More importantly, the British had a need to actively participate in recapturing and resettling slaves because of the now declining but troublesome “black-market” slave trade which was affecting the legitimate trade (now appreciated as a symbol of the nineteenth century European). Of course, it will be remiss not to mention that this period of significant economic shift is documented as a point when there was an increase in slave trade within West Africa along the palm oil belt as a source of cheap labor. Another point to emphasize that slavers are a human flaw and not race-specific.

From the article, I love the part that stresses the diversity in the development of African societies prior to European occupation which establishes similarities to other parts of the world during that time. In that, there were parts that would appear primitive based on standards of that time and parts that were highly advanced whether as centralized or segmented societies. So the question is why was one face emphasized over the other. In my opinion, Slavery has had a hand in the disruption and distortion of African Civilisation but more damning is racial Europe that subdued Its internal nationalist rivalries with racialism in order to share a justified common goal of colonialism and the white supremacist belief that Western civilization should replace African civilization or at least model a unique African civilization based on European design. The point is Afro-Euro relations at the north, east and the west of Africa before the TA slave trade was just like any contact between two proud civilizations with each having something of equal measure to offer to each other with none being superior. The feeling of superiority of one over the other will only put the self-proclaimed superior one to shame because no civilization is perfect or does not need to learn from another and history has proven this over and over again.

That said I appreciate the mention of a historical novel about the African American experience in Liberia during the 19th century and I will like to be on the email list but sadly your email (Terence Levonza Johnson) has not been shared. I share the opinion that the successes and tragedies of Sierra Leone and especially Liberia during the nineteenth century are important historical references for modern African states like my country Ghana.

As Africans both at home and in the diaspora, our combined efforts to re-establish our importance and undo both internal and external misfortunes of our past and our present heavily depends on our unity not fostered by racialism but one open to globalism. So that truth that we re-establish cannot be contested since it lacks biases and generally as evolved people who have learned from our past, not to do to others what has been done to us.


I appreciate articles like this. This is the life line for African Americans if they would read it. I am a lover of history from Slavery to the Colonist, to this very day of African Americans. I also enjoy American history, the history of each state in America. There is much more about history that I enjoy. With it comes a peaceful mind for me. The days of exploring life from the point of view as when I was a teenager is over. Now it is take all of it in about my own history and the history about America. It will teach you the root of problems that exist or why they exists in our country. And I love finding the root of problems, it brings me peace.


I find the Article inspiring and enriching. African civilization was disrupted and there is no intention in the whites mans white supremacy mentality to acknowledge that a black man is a great man. Blacks and africans are unique special people in all aspects , i think it is important for blacks to map out their own journey. Africa can not move on the same read of development socially, economically with the rest World. African way of life is not based on the Capitalistic mentality, and Unless Africa defines their own methods of development in all aspects, they will remain enslaved mentally, spiritually and economically.


Most historical definitions written toward east Africa, all of them by any means trying to hide or disgrace my country ETHIOPIA had un in ancient times 7000 years ago, which was ETHIOPIAN dominated the entire region on vast areas. But everything systematically and purposely written on new history after European colonization BREAKS in ETHIOPIA. SOI we ETHIOPIAN believe receive unstoppable historical attacks and take away all our credit for civilization mostly to Egypt. Believe it or not Egyptian ruled by ETHIOPIAN, we have NILE, unique Alphabet, its own callander, a lot of things, one day the truth reveals.,we ETHIOPIAN believe the PYRAMIDS was built by ETHIOPIAN. It was their territory


This article is the best Ive come across regarding the actual cause of slavery as many are more vague and seem to continually revolve around where in America did the captives arrive. An Idea for a new blog may be to focus around the Portugal slave traders and the impact of Islam among Africans that contributed to the acceptability of slave trade through out Africa by other Black Africans. Also a piece on the Spanish slave trade may help in the understanding of what went on to cause the enslavement of the various African tribes. Please email me with any more of your publications. Thank you


We live in a society and world now, where it appears that the faster technology advances, and the more division of races of people, we are no longer impressive by facts. I am impressed by facts that most not be in dispute. The article does in no way presents itself as a book, but information that is summary of different time periods in many of the countries within the continent of Africa’s history. It is pure ignorance and a form of neurosis to slam the entire article based on any bias or misinformed or limited knowledge and indepth study of any world history. It is a major fact that every past empire has collapsed rather by internal efforts, or external invasion. What cannot be in dispute is the author of this article’s knowledge of such great empires such as Ghana, Mali, Songhai, Timbuktu and many other smaller kingdoms that at one time in hanced the continent of Africa and contributed much in the progressive academia, economical, political development , growth and advancement of Greece, Rome, China, European, as well as some Arabic nations. Africa is made up of 30 some countries. Many different languages culturals and tribes. Babylonian times was considered to be initially, the first real civilized throughout the world of that time. Trading, migration of peoples and the mixing of groups of humanity has been taken place for thousands of years. Slavery in any form is wrong in my personal opinion, but because humanity has a innate ability and desire to conquer, whether internal, or external, slavery seems to be a ever present means to obtaining one’s sense of worth and power over resources. The problem with slavery is that it creates inhumane conditioning, captivity, and devaluing of humanity as well as many other evils. God created all things, great and small. Slavery removes the freedom that God created in man for himself, and the world around him. God gave man ability to choose. Slavery takes away choice. The inability to not be able to choose goes against God’s righteousness. Yet, God knew man’s rebellious spirit, so he place parameters around the master’s treatment of his slave. Man has left these parameters, and chose evil acts. Evil acts have been committed for thousands of years against slaves, but to strip humans of their language name and culture is pure evil and humane. There is nothing wrong in nations borrowing from other nations to enhance their own growth, but to claim something that you did not discover, or produce is a real lack of knowledge because as long as there is a Supreme Being! Truth, Righteousness, and Liberty will prevail. I’m just saying. Knowledge and truth always wins out


Quite an interesting article although I find some of the assumptions and conclusions not particularly correct…at least in my own reading of history.

First, there is the underlying assumptions that homogenizes all black people as though they are one monolith with the same experiences and all. This faulty assumption which is eurocentric in source has always created a faulty understanding of African history.

Secondly, we Africans were active participants in the slave trade and sadly, many of the coastal kingdoms in pre colonial Nigeria had their political systems built around one thing, slaves and much later oil after the abolition of slave trade. In fact, King Pepple, one of the coastal kingdom leaders was said to have negotiated and collected about £10,000 from the British to end his trade in slaves. To an outsider, they may be wondering why black people will want to sell black people, the answer lies in the first point, that communities were different with different beliefs and some communities saw the the communities as enemies (not brothers) in pre colonial Africa.

I will suggest that you a closer reading of African historians like Kenneth Dike will help broaden the discussion around the subject matter.


It’s so sad that as a black woman the only history that the oppressors want us to believe is that we were slaves and nothing else. I see many comments about the Bible and how we were to be treated as slaves. I strongly encourage black people to stop letting other cultures tell us what we were and our history. This page is the example of how still today we are being taught that we are less than. When in fact the only cursed people in the Bible were The children of Israel. God’s chosen people who are today is labeled so-called blacks or African Americans, Hispanics, and the Native Americans. No one mentions the book of Leviticus or Deuteronomy. Where the Most High mentions that we should follow his commands. Black people we need to do our own research and understand that we must read the Bible and follow the Most High’s commands!!! We are Yahawah’s chosen people and the commands and statutes is for us and us only. The 12 Tribes of Israel!! Our ancestors chose to break these commands and follow the heathen’s Gods. Read Deuteronomy chapter 28 kjv it’s there in plain sight everything our ancestors experienced during slavery and what we are experiencing today. Read!!!


This is the biggest pile of stealing garbage and those talking about racism and having degrees are either COMPLETELY unscholarly or as fraudulent as the author. The transatlantic myth was for one thing only. …to disenherit and disenfranchiseven the so called African American who is the original person found in the Americas from the Antilles to Greenland.
How do you COMPLETELY ignore the original explorers who throughly documented the aboriginal COPPER colored people of the Americas. One can, right now examine the book, America: Being THE Most Accurate Depiction of The New World online in pdf form for free! There’s only a couple surviving copies housed in the Library of Congress.
You will NEVER find any depiction or description of Eurasian natives in the Americas by any early explorers! You won’t find mention our pictures of them until the advent of the camera and the first SURVIVING census in the 1800’s. And when you read the instructions for “Indians not taxed” (to which there is a difference between Indian and native American which only means born here) the takers were told to list them as colored!
No other people have been reclassified or I should say slandered publicly in so many ways: negro, colored, mulatto, black then African American. It doesn’t get any more obvious than that! None of which were self chosen and WHY wouldn’t they just be called African?
I could go into the fact the transatlantic passing was an impossibility technologically! Wins and currents flow west east so you can’t SAIL them. The ships had no ballast to maintain neutral buoyancy! No provisions for sanitation! No storage for clean water and supplies. NO SHIPS FOUND INTACT OR EVEN CLOSE! So called slave forts being listed as private residencies.
The most telling going is no great “African” or trial literary works about the theft of over 20 million people! No stories. NOTHING. Better still are west Africans that have migrated here and NEVER heard of the stories OR only learned in western schools or upon arrival! Videos of dime if their interviews can be YouTube’d! There are paid shills that try to sell the story because they gain revenue from simple minded tourists! They can only site the. ..ahem. ..seminal work. ..errr…plagurized work of Alex Haley’s Roots which was not only stolen but the genealogy was made up. Want a good laugh and an insight as to how they played people? Look up the fact that Kunta Kente is an aboriginal American name.
This poorly stacked house of cards is crumbling right along with the fake out of Africa theory. At this point is just sad and too easily demythologized! I didn’t even scratch the surface.


An interesting read, definitely worth taking the time.


North Africans were different from sub Saharan Africans hence the term sub Saharan African when talking about dna. The ancient Egyptians were of the Caucasian race.Black Africans took blacks as slaves first and that is the reason the Muslims of the Middle East took them also.Muslims had black slaves for about 900 years before the Europeans did.Just because it says Africa doesnt mean its black.Its like saying Polish people are just like vietnamese because the land is literally connected.Stop buying into the destruction of our society by an ideology that wants to cause division.They start with speech and culture and invert it.


Rich Block. You talk absolute. nonsense. No white civilisation have been found in Africa much less Egypt. The Egyptians migrated from Niger. A place the house the oldest Sphinx and Pyramid.
The Egyptians were all over Africa. You would evidence of that if you would go and investigate instead regurgitating the Ethnocentric nonsense the white privilege made up about a continent and it’s people. They that were living in European caves at the time of the Egyptians and didn’t know anything about a place called Africa, that wasn’t even its name, could never in a million years be in possession the truth especially when you all tell some much lies and not interested in the truth just because of your own racism alone.
Black Africans did not have slaves you cannot provide on proof of it. Not physical proof of it, Only what you people wrote in your pages.
The term Sub-Saharan African is a term derived by the White person to try and make a distinction/isolate Egypt from the rest of Africa knowing full well that the Egyptian were connected to all parts of Africa, The term have it’s root in the French white Europeans.

Before white Europeans and Arabs, that are nothing but left overs from Ottoman Empire, Africa stretched to Arabia and beyond Israel. In Ancient time these people would try to settle in the land of Canaanite but the Egyptian would ride out and destroy them. They are not indigenous to Arabia. The black Africa was there long before them. If you don’t believe me go look it in the encyclopedia Britannica. It will tell you. The African don’;t need to.


This article is jus a piece of insight not an answer so those giving negative feed back should add to it instead of trying to debunk it or do your own research on it one thing i know life and living is about collective see some of y’all state of mind is based in a westerners ego and pride state


Didn’t the Egyptians take slaves Israelites and slavery was common practice in Africa? Even the tombs of the kings had 360 slave statues, one for each day of the Egyptian year.

I’ve heard many stories, but one that’s come up several times is that Africa was the first place to take slaves. Many of the europeans came and saw Africans having slaves for the first time and some started buying them first. Word spread and that led to this bigger seizing of slaves, sadly.

Since there is a lot of trauma still being carried around this, I am really curious. It like declaring, the Germans they are the ones responsible for all this war on the planet. They may have killed a lot of people but there were many other wars before that. We are at a point in our society where all of us have ancestors that have been raped, enslaved, pillaged, murdered, tortured. And if we keep pointing fingers at each other we are never actually going to process the anger, grief, and emotions we are holding.

All war and slavery is our own inner environment of the mind. If we can all find peace within, that is how we end the war. We end the slavery by taking ownership for our power. I am not talking about the past, I am talking about now. Give you power now to inner peace and liberate yourself.

The huna shaman from Hawaii have a special prayer that ends all war and suffering. I am sorry, please forgive me, thank you, I love you.

Our history was a learning experience. Let’s learn from it what not to do going forward.

We are all one. We come from the same place.


Our history and even now news is distorted. Not just black history. There were entire civilizations wiped out and there is a current effort by the Egyptian government to prevent any new discoveries that would prove their theories of the pyramids being tombs that were built during the pharaonic times.


Can someone help me, please? I’m looking to study pre and post African colonialism. I’m doing this to be able to gain some knowledge on the human mechanics of the whole current situation of struggle and poverty. Can someone point me in the right direction as a starting point. I just want to try to help in some way and I think the first step is understanding how Africa got to where it is today.

Any help would be greatly appreciated 🙂


Your article is good, it’s a fact no one is ashamed of yet.


Shaka’s history has been distorted a lot by colonizers who used his story to miseducated Southern Africans about their real history… He was Imbube/Induna yezikhali and served under King Menzi the true founder of the Zulu nation.

Menzi placed Senzangakhona as the protector of the nation and when he rejected his son, it was Menzi’s wife who raised Shaka – he is still today known or referred to as “uNodumehlezi kaMenzi” literally meaning he gained fame by residing in Menzi’s home. Menzi had a son he named Nkayishana.

If you do your research you will know that amaZulu refer to themselves as “abeNkayishana kaMenzi” literally meaning they belong to the son of Menzi; Nkayishana – even the current Zulu monarch’s clan praise refers to that. I can go on and on about this but the point is

HISTORY WRITTEN OR CAPTURED BY COLONIZERS HAS BEEN DISTORTED TO SUIT THEM AND THEIR MISSION TO MISEDUCATE AND EVENTUALLY TAKE OVER OUR BEAUTIFUL CONTINENT.

African Royal King: Menzi “Pete” Xaba is the father to the Royal King: Nkayishana “King Moshoeshoe I” Xaba father to Nkwankwini “Moshe” Xaba who is the brother to Mpangele “Aron” Xaba the biological father to King Dinizulu “INkayishana encane kaMenzi” Xaba who is the father of Princess Magogo who is the biological mother to Prince: Dr Mangosuthu G Buthelezi (IFP Leader)

Royal King: Nkayishana “King Moshoeshoe I” was buried alive chained both hands and legs by the White People on the 5th of May 1603 Friday and that day was celebrated till date as “Good Friday” meaning the Royal King position was led by the African Royal King (Black person) and the Royal Queen position led and still in hands of Royal Queen (White People)

The African Royal King: Menzi “Pete” Xaba is also the founder of the so called “Royal Education” which later known as “OBE/ CAPS”. The Xaba surname was Qaba before it became Xaba due to the fact that Xaba people are the San/ Khoisan aka Abathwa as some of you know them as “Abathwa baka Menzi”

The Xaba Royal Kingdom position consists of the three (3) Royal Kingdom seats namely:

a) ISilo: Menzi/ Nkayishana
b) IBhubesi: Royal King-Menzi appointed Langalibalele Hadebe to lead that department
&
c) IMbube: Royal King-Menzi appointed Shaka kaSenzangakhona aka “uNodumehlezi kaMenzi” to lead that department later under the leadership of Goodwill Zwelithini Lifelolenja not Zulu (His hidden surname)

Several Xaba men, women, children were kidnapped to America and other countries and those who went to America were humiliated so hard in order to force them change their original XABA surname into a new surname “Jackson” (Jack is the most powerful tool on earth and Son-people/ Nation) which existed as from 1603 till date. The White people did their best to destroy Xaba Royal Kingdom and spread false history about this royal family.

Please allow me to leave here it long and painful but thanks God we are the Peace Ambassadors among other existing Nations on planet. Today on the 19th of August 2017 our Royal King: Nkayishana “King Moshoeshoe I” Xaba is making the 414 years buried alive chained both hands and legs.

The White led Government knew about this
The Black led Government knew and know about this (From Hon. PW Botha to Hon. Pres-JG Zuma


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